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Exam Notes Week 6 to End.docx

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GEOG 2210
Ben Bradshaw

WEEK 7 – Tues Feb 28 Changing Nature of Canadian Agri - Similar to Western countries- constant change - Industrialization of Agri o Larger/fewer farms, rise of corporations power, specialization, artificial inputs, increased productivity, externalities - Specialization: Monoculture- cultivation of one crop species (or one strain) on a large plot of land (increase susceptibility to pests/disease) Soil salinization: excess of salts in soils, reduces capacity of soil to produce crops (salt interferes w moisture), natural but exaggerated through use of irrigation in dry land areas Water Contamination: waste/fertilizers spread on fields, nutrients not assimilated end up in surface and ground water Agri-Enviro Stewardship- Improve enviro performance can be achieved by... - Improved agri-enviro stewardship within conventional agri - Increase adoption of alternative forms of agri - Encouraging conventional farmers to improve easy when practices are profitable o ex. conservation tillage: new plats growing among last year’s crop residue o OR zero-tillage: pulling a large planter to deposit seeds barely disturb the soil WEEK 8 Tuesday March 6 Carbon Dioxide (c.9) Greenhouse Effect: - Natural: incoming and re-radiating solar radiation trapped by GHGs without which we would freeze - Enhanced: industrial revolution increased levels of - Future: w/o reduction in GHGs the temp will increase, small changes in temp have huge impacts (ice caps melt, flooding, climate zone boundary shifts), greater temp extremes, more natural disasters Kyoto Protocol: first international voluntary agreement limiting GHG emissions (167 countries signed) From view of.... 1. Institutions - Tragedy of the Commons: open access to atmosphere, no rules about emissions each country benefits more from adding pollution than they lose from climate change - Free riders: impacts not necessarily felt most where most CO2 emitted, even if benefit from reduction- those that pay w cuts (assume cuts in emission create economic disadvantages) will pay more than benefit 2. Political Economy - Uneven devt: wealthiest produce most but least affected by impacts, those affected can’t afford to take action and have limited political power nd - Growth- 2 contradiction of capitalism: capital accumulation requires consumption, consumption uses resources/produces waste/degrades enviro - Cost shifting: o Homo economicus is an externalizing machine: producers encouraged to shift (externalize)costs of production to govts/taxpayers/workers/enviro  Especially in competitive sectors where low profit margins put pressure on producers to externalize as many costs as possible - Co-opting of govt: state has incompatible goals (economic growth and enviro stewardship), in hard economic times the enviro isn’t the focus Thursday March 8 Trees (c.10) - Differing appreciation of “climax vegetation” (avg. vegetation of a place determined by climate/physiographic conditions) and the role of “disturbance” (event that usually temporarily alters the vegetation of an ecosystem- then species invade until the ecosystem returns to before) - Forest types: Tropical temperate boreal - 30.3% of land (little is old growth), 10% of is in Canada - Forestry mainly in softwoods Reforestation via Silviculture - Theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands - Extreme form of manages forestry - After harvest: slash burning, replant w 1-2 species, brush removal Forest Transition Theory - Initial popn growth and devt in an area will cause deforestation - As economy changes, wealth increases, ppl migrate to urban areas, pressures on the forest will decline and/or more planting will be done - Forest cover over time consistent w enviro Kuznets curve Anthropocentric Ethics - Trees do not have rights, just seen as source of timber/pulp little concern for forests other purposes - This ethical stance reflected in management systems Forest Management in Canada th - Over 20 cent govts granted rights (licenses) to crown land to even fewer large companies (94& publicly owned Crown Land, 6% private) - Licenses last 15-20 yrs w non-competitive replacement options approx. every 5 yrs - Govts view this as a good deal b/c only larger companies would generate steady flows of timber production which would stabilize forest-based communities - Harvesting based on sustained yield o Cut no faster than new trees can grow –even flow of timber can be maintained, based on rotation period (time for species to reach maturity) but economic maturity not the same as biological maturity Clear Cutting - Dominant method in Canada, most cost-effective, minimizes road construction, safest for loggers, easiest to re- plant, in some cases best mimics natural disturbances - Alternatives o Selective Logging: expensive (use helicopters), less safe o Patch-Cutting: increased road construction which can be more ecologically damaging o Alternatives may not provide sufficient quantity Ecological importance of forests: ecosystem connectivity, nutrient cycling, carbon storage, biological diversity Forest Stewardship Council: issued to Canadian forestry operations, get b/c of threats from NGOs, price premiums WEEK 9 Tuesday March 13 Wolves (c.11) - Eliminated from US Northern Rockies in 1930s, Canada re-colonized early 1980s, livestock industry not happy Ecology of Wolves - Common because can adapt to ecosystems and benefit from pack operation - Apex predator: at the highest trophic level (no natural predators) - Fill an important ecological niche: removal from ecosystem changes the lower trophic levels History of Wolves - 1958 eradicated in US and Mexico: govt paid for wolf kills, hunted to protect livestock - Eventually scientists/conservationists became advocates for wolves- part of the ecosystem, restrictions on selling wolf products, Ethics: eradication based on anthropocentric ethics Defining Biodiversity - Types of biodiversity: o Genetic diversity within a popn o Species diversity within a community o Ecological/habitat diversity within a region - A measure of the number of diff species of plants/animals in a given area Species at Risk - Background extinction: historical, continuous, low level elimination of species (usually replaced w evolution of new species) - Mass extinction: high-level elimination of species over a short period of time: 5 periods of naturally induced (ex. dinosaurs), human induced species loss augmenting natural rates – evolution of new species can’t keep pace o Most pressing enviro issue Amphibians are enviro indicators, declining popn indicates problemsRestore Wolf: greater lands to become wild (even human-inhabited areas), top predators need to be re-introduced in these areas - Wolf Compensation Trust: incentive to ranchers who help protect wolves, interest among non-locals to contribute financially, fund to pay ranchers for livestock lost - Institutions: manage wolves through devt of management plans crafted through stakeholder engagement - Social Construction: man as righteous hunter (masculinity), wolf as savage hunter (savagery, packs, no mercy) Thursday March 15 Tuna and Fisheries (c.12) Atlantic Fishery and the Northern Cod Moratorium - Foreign trawlers - Spike in fishing - Closing of foreign fishing and begin science-based management system - Excess capacity relative to declining stocks - Part of the problem is the belief that we can harvest at a rate of Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) - a.k.a. a Total Allowable Catch (TAC) Fish popn dynamics- can fluctuate based on va
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