Study Guides (247,973)
Canada (121,209)
Geography (218)
GEOG 3050 (4)

Exam Notes.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

GEOG 3050
Kate Parizeau

WEEK 3 Infrastructure: Water, Waste and Transportation Water & Sanitation - Financing & role of public institutions: shift aid from donor to country led projects – strengthens service pathways translating inputs (finance) into outcomes anchored in core govt systems - Advances bypass poor & rural –benefit the better off, for poorest 40% hardly increased – Millennium Devt Goals - ZAWAHRI: incentive for govts to overstate improvements & mask inequality - JOSHI: dignity as basic sanitation need, informal settlements need tenure to invest in sanitation, externally imposed programs not sufficient, inequalities b/c of cost/tech/lack of demand - CHAPLIN: poor need to improve political capacity to advocate for themselves - MULLER: free water in S. Africa, put cap on, free so ppl waste more o end results financial stability of water supply instits, water conservation promotion, more equal access - Issues: health, culture, gender (women collect), diversion (dams), pollution, threat of privatization Energy  ex. solar water heaters in urban/peri Egypt Transportation - PUCHER: traffic accidents, need to improve infra/extend public transport and funding/governance - EX. Medellin gondola/escalator system - Issues: more car ownership, public transit safety, financing, transport pollution, poor cant afford, govt supports elite modes Waste - G South municipalities spend 20-50% budget on solid waste management, 30-60% still uncollected, 50% popn receives services - EX. her time in Cambodia - Issues: low collection rates, disposal, more consumption, e-waste to G South, enviro issues - Privatization of Infra: only successful if govts prevent monopoly WEEK 4 Housing: From Slums and Squatter Settlements to Gated Communities - 1 bill in slums in urban G South - Slum Housing: households lacking improved water, sanitation, sufficient living area or durable housing - DAVIS: why?? Optimize housing costs, tenure security, quality of shelter, work commute, personal safety - Locations: urban periphery, inner-city, unoccupied peri-urban land, public land, unoccupied marginal land - Physical condition: deteriorating, poor infra, hazard, poor enviro, crowded, dieses, crime, drugs - Factors impeding housing construction in cities in G South o Insecurity, policy limitations, financing, planning/zoning, urban growth, underdevt - Tenure provision: arrangements under which the household occupies the housing (ex. rental, own by member), gives more security & financial leverage - PAYNE (tenure): land titling doesn’t create financial assets, is relative, gentrification threat (displace for affluent urban redevt) - Slum upgrading: policy shift from top-down govt interventions to “self-help” projects, privatization, housing coops, govt support for construction - UN HABITAT indicate improvement a) tenure security 2) structural quality 3) safe water access 4) sanitation - Gated communities: safety, enough $, don’t want to mingle w poor WEEK 5 Work: Informal and Formal Sectors Informal - Informal, low-income, export oriented, certain types visible in cityscape and challenge “modernity” - Informal sector: not subject to national labour legis, tax, social protection/benefits, severance pay, sick leave - Globalization increase jobs but many informal, low paid, or poor working conditions - Pitfalls: uneducated work force, no skill devt, competition b/w workers b/c no union - Benefits: develop culture, no tax, can have reasons why cant have formal job, choose where work, low entry, can work underage - MILGRAM: street vending Philippines, migrate daily to city centre, enforcement of vending uneven - WHITSON: Argentina informal workers peak after financial crisis, informality was prevalent in all sectors, regularize informal work Formal : 40% in G South, factory work in transnational corporations (TNCs) Illegal & Forced Social Problems & Work - EX. pottery & leather in Dharavi, factory fires, asbestos exposure in India (cant use in Canada but make and sell to G South) - Child labour: 215 mill, 115 mill hazardous, reaction to household poverty o Positive: focus on local employment, rehab child soldiers in Africa, trafficking awareness, abuse awareness, school training programs WEEK 6  Gender, Social Difference and Education Gender - Indicators of gender inequality o Education: poverty, pregnancy o Employment: more vulnerable forms of employment, earn lower wage, poor working conditions o Political power: 11-19% increase b/w 1995-2010 o Improve maternal health, access to contraceptive, educating women and decrease fertility rates - Violence: rape weapon of war, female genital mutilation, domestic violence - Efforts to increase gender inequality: women’s empowerment/capacity building, education & awareness, institutional reform - Men: hazardous work, involved w justice system - & the city: social control in spaces exercised via expected patterns of behaviour & excluding groups who transgress (or believe will) these codes of behaviour - SWANSON: mothers & children begging in Ecuador, seen as exploitative/lazy, seen as out of place o self-perceptions: economically resourceful, providing child care, public work as safe & empowering Social Difference - Dimensions have diff elements constructed socially/culturally, can combine, affect daily lives in G South - Disability: more likely experience economic disadvantage, urban areas have more to offer Education - JONES & CHANT: Africa, gender inequalities in edu access, youth work to pay for, tensions b/w edu & work for $, vehicle for social mobility? WEEK 7  Violence and Policing - Defining violence: use of physical force, psychological hurt, material deprivation, symbolic disadvantage – exercise of power used to legitimize use of force for specific gains Crime Statistics - Can be incentive for govts to not properly report violence in their society - Diff places have diff defns - Sometimes collected by police but not all crimes reported to police - Homicide o Often use homicide as statistical indicator of violence o Higher level associated with low human & economic devt o Affected by global financial crisis - Young males most affected Urban Violence - Three types of urban violence (actors & their - 3 types of violence (motivations for) relships) 1. Political – motivated by political 1. Political violence – against the state power by the state, insurgency 2. Economic – financial motives 2. Communal and ethnic violence – 3. Social – interpersonal motives group-identity conflict - Causes in G South 3. Criminal/anomic violence – banditry o Migration doesn’t increase but might in future - 4 types of urban violence (expressions of o Density violence & type of conflict) o Cities as sites of diversity 1. Open armed conflict o Lower arrest rates/ greater anon 2. Endemic community violence o Poverty/scarcity, inequality & exclusion 3. Organized crime o Built form enable 10-15% 4. Anomic crime o Globalization o Drug trade - Communal/ethnic violence & social violence: S. Africa’s war against women - RODGERS: youth gangs in Nicaragua, increasing crime Latin America, neighbourhood-based territorial dynamics - Urban impacts of violence o Less social capital (less trust, more corruption), fear & insecurity o Degraded infra / built form, securitized spaces
More Less

Related notes for GEOG 3050

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.