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GEOG 3490

Introduction – Ch. 1, Manual Ch. 1 th - “tourist” appeared in 19 cent as travel for pleasure , railway devt made it easier Definitions - World Tourism Organization (WTO): tourism comprises of the activities of persons travelling to/staying in places outside their usual enviro for not more than 1 yr for leisure/business or other reasons - Interact w doff types of enviro than home, consequences known as impacts of tourism, developing nations use tourism for development - Extent to which resources should be used for tourism raises ethical concerns, impact often measured in terms of economic contributions, 10% of global GDP - No output physically measurable, subjective term - Mass tourism: tour operators offering a package sold en masse to ppl, mimics Fordist model o Lead to enviro problems and loss of culture - Framing conditions: range of influences exerted by changes in society, tourism is vulnerable to The Growth in Demand for Tourism Pre-Industrial Tourism - Romans left to escape heat, after Roman Empire collapse travel in Middle Ages harder th th - 17 cent: “Grand Tour” quest for Renaissance learning, lasted until Napoleonic war (19 cent) - Travel guides began, ppl travelled to seek good health - Became interested in landscapes b/c of Industrial Devt & Romantic movement Creating Conditions for the Growth of Contemporary Tourism: Influence of Industrialization - Perceptions of what were desirable landscapes changed, work & leisure separated, time conscious th - Vacation time recognized in policy by end 19 cent - Transport better – steam engine later 19 cent, 20 cent  car/planes , 21 cent info  travel Mass Participation in International Tourism - Initially in Europe (close proximity,  prosperity) - Leftover war aircraft, tour operators promote Spain, success of Spain’s tourism a catalyst for economic growth/devt encourages other countries to develop tourism as economic policy Perceptions of Our Enviros for Tourism and Ethical IssuesCh. 2, Manual Ch, 2 What is meant By Environment? - Natural enviro, what surround our home/destination, aspects of human behaviour as relate to natural world, anything outside an organism in which the organism lives - Ways defined o The surroundings: surroundings for their life or the duration of the society o Objective systems: systems of nature (ex. mountains), encompass society but precede and succeed it o Perceived surroundings: of an individual that lend a sense of belonging or home - Can be independent or a construct of the human mind, connection b/w management of resources and perception of nature - Enviro 3 diff types: human made, cultural and natural - Tourism resource: element of biophysical/cultural enviro providing opportunities to satisfy tourist demands - Diff cultures see diff o Christianity: 1) in image of God & have right to act in “godlike manner” to rest of cosmos (anthropocentric) 2) humans part of creation like all else & none superior o Indigenous: part of same enviro, animals & humans to harm one is to harm the other Changing Perceptions of Landscape - The wish to visit a place is socially constructed and depends on developing a “cultural desire” - Factors in changing way tourism resources are viewed: opportunities/constraints of the enviro, changing desires, tech, institutional arrangements - Wilderness o Classical perspective: creation of livable space a mark of civilization/progress o Romantic: untouched spaces have greatest value, spiritually signif - Romantics opposed urbanization & loss of community, beach  during, urbanization  seaside culture - Later 19 cent purpose built attractions and seaside tourism (shift from health to pleasure) - Devt railway = middle/working class holiday boom - End 19 cent mountain  popularity – winter sports developed -  interest in landscapes 19 cent led to ads for enviro Tourism as a Form of Consumption - Consumption differentiates ppl & gain sense of identity, conspicuous consumption: spend to show off wealth - “habitus”: types of tourism we participate in carry cultural symbols & meaning, ability for ppl to adopt objects/ practices that differentiate them from others (tourism does this less today – more common) Types of Tourists - Cohen: type tourist depend on “world view”, person orientates to “centre” spiritual meaning& where located o 4 types: organized mass tourist , individual mass tourist , explorer , drifter 1) Retreatists: rest & enjoyment rather than spiritual centre, not interested in culture, bring home enviro w them 2) Diversionary: diversion from boredom of life (alienated), doesn’t establish centre to home or other culture 3) Experiential: more contact w local culture but aware of “otherness” of culture 4) Experimental: aim to live in diff culture to discover feeling of authenticity & new centre, high immersion, unconvinced of authenticity of any one & keeps searching, relocate centre but don't move there (visit often) - Plog o Psychocentrics: self inhibited, nervous, non adventuresome o Allocentrics: experimental, confident, adventurous  Find nontourist destinations and then they become popular Experiencing the Environment - Modes of environmental experience o Environment as a “setting for action”: hedonistic place- has resources for wanted activity, disregard for enviro& history o Enviro as social system: place to interact w fam/friends (relship focus), physical setting irrelevant o Enviro as emotional territory: emotions evoked by enviro, sense of wellbeing/wonder at diff enviro o Enviro as self: merge physical& cultural enviro w self (not detachable), spiritual centre located in enviro, attached to landscapes& cultures, seen as better than home enviro Environmental Philosophy and Ethics -  b/c increase knowledge of enviro problems from human actions - Naess o Shallow ecology: anthropocentric, enviro separate from humans, there to meet needs (instrumental) o Deep ecology: holistic, value, challenges consumerism , adopt enviro ethic reflected in lifestyle - Kant: a)worth of nature purely instrumental b)no moral limits on humanity w regards to use c)no intrinsic internal limits w/I nature that we should respect - Descartes: believed animals irrational & couldn’t suffer - Simmons: meaning of applications of ethics to enviro  i) ethics for “use of enviro” (anthro) ii) ethics “for the enviro” (some moral standings MANUAL Canadian Land Inventory (CLI): map areas in terms of inherent capability for the land to support diff resource uses - 7 classes: 1)highest capability, can generate/sustain high degree of recreational activity.....7)little capability to support recreational activities Ecotourism Opportunity Spectrum (ECOS): continuum of opportunities provided to tourists by the resources in a particular area, suggests enviro doesn’t dictate the kind of activity that can occur - 7 management factors: 1)access 2)other resource-related activities 3)attractions offered 4)existing infra 5)level of skill/knowledge 6)social interaction 7)acceptance of visitor impacts Landscapes Landscape analysis: assessment of characteristics thought to influence the aesthetic response to landscape - 3 types: 1) biophysical features (ex.landform) 2) human factors (ex. cultural) 3)ephemeral (ex.wildlife) Landscape assessment: measuring the aesthetic quality of a landscape Landscape Description approach: features of landscape assumed to contribute positively to aesthetic quality, assumes Landscape preference approach: individuals rate, indicate factors they think contribute to aesthetic response, expensive Tourism Demand 1) Economic/Classical Model: relship b/w supply& demand (costs related to participation) 2) Current Consumption: tourism a form of consumption that permeates the contemporary consumer culture 3) Behavioural Perspective: demand is preference for specific experiences a. 2 types of demand: expressed and latent (unexpressed) - 2 primary kinds of factors influence travel: external factors (ex. tech) and personal factors (ex. income) - Attributes of the destination influences decisions: 1)distance/accessibility 2)image of the destination 3)are there comparable destinations 4)cleanliness/safety 5)facilities/attractions provided - Projecting demand o Trend extrapolation: forecasting methods, assume previous trends continue o Analogues: projecting visitation to a site instead of activity, experience in one place to infer for another o Structural analysis: demand on basis of factors thought to influence demand o Issues with these techniques: 1)need to anticipate preferences/tech 2)consider availability of leisure time& limit to amounts of tourism ppl will undertake and still enjoy 3)suitable places/activities 4)hard to project demand Adventure Tourism - Key elements: remote destination, nature of risk, immerse in activity, activity can be commercialized - Model of risk recreation (5 stages): 1)attraction 2)cognitive appraisal 3)decision 4)performance experience 5)intuitive-reflection appraisal Modeling Tourism Demand and Supply Relationships 1) Spatial Approach: emphasizes need to quantify the magnitude of demand, focus on patterns of activity 2) The Experience Approach: the what rather than why, quality of resources, connection b/w kinds of activities o Cycle of popularity: 1)exploration 2)involvement 3)development 4)consolidation 5)stagnation 6)post- stagnation o Place image theory: assessment must take into account opinions of visitors AND potential ones Tourisms Relationship with the EnvironmentCh. 3 Changing Perspectives on Tourisms Relationship with the Environment - 1960s: increase in economy reflected in enviro issues increasing priority, tourism thought to be enviro friendly - 1970s: ppl predicted shortages, nuclear power issues apparent, experts examine effects - 1980s: enviro issues from humans in media,mass tourism (econ devt in poor countries)protection groups - 1990s: new enviro concerns, ethics, knowledge of impacts limited b/c new study Negative Impacts - Ecosystem issues o Common Pool Resources (CPRs): “finders keepers” o Coral reefs disappearing, strip coasts (become unstable) o Dangerous areas more popular b/c of beauty - Competition for natural resource usage o Consume nature for devt & as attractions o Opportunity costs: possible benefits from other activities - Demonstration effect: ppl susceptible to outside influences seek behaviours so achieve life of tourists they see o Can lead to rituals becoming a parody, commercialization, local handicraft becoming souvenirs - Pollution o Water: issues w sewage treatment before discharging in sea, health concerns, activities cause pollution o Air: transport, air travel  as w pollution rates o Noise: affect behaviour, air traffic o Aesthetic: build around seaside ( profits w no concern for aesthetics) Positive Impacts - Protects places from other harmful activities (ex. mines), aids urban regeneration, often emphasizes pristine enviro Tourism, the Environment, and Economics Ch.4, Manual Ch.3 Role of Natural Environment - Natural attributes provide the resources for wealth creation, disposal system for tourism industry - Traditional models based on continued growth by  production/consumption, doesn’t account for enviro degradation ignores basic scientific principles 1)energy/matter can neither be created nor destroyed 2)when resources process amount of useless energy  (entropy) (ex.pollution) Economic Growth and Human Welfare - Effects of process to achieve economic growth on the enviro lead to questioning how it should be achieved - GDP: value of
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