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HIST1010 Final Exam Notes.docx

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University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Susannah Ferreira

HIST1010 Final Exam Notes What is history? Objective: To introduce history as a forensic discipline. 1. Differentiating between fact and interpretation 2. Using facts as evidence: Grimshaw’s interpretation of Columbus 3. Evaluating a historical hypothesis: Gavin Menzie’s 1421 4. The Collaborative Research Assignment The Autumn of the Middle Ages Objective: To locate the Renaissance in the ‘crisis’ of the late Middle Ages 1. Definitions of Renaissance 2. Influence of Avignon Papacy (1309-1377) and Papal Schism (1378-1415) on Humanist Scholarship 3. Increased political competition from Hundred Years War and its influence on artistic patronage. 4. The arrival of Black Death and impact on art and literature. The Medicis, Godfathers of the Renaissance (movie) Las Casas Martin Luther and the Diet of Worms Objective: To look at underlying conditions paving the way for the Reformation 1. ‘The Great Man’ Theory of History 2. Political geography of the Holy Roman Empire 3. The impact of the printing press 4. Advent of Christian Humanism The Counter Reformation Objective: To examine the Counter-Reformation as both an independent and a reactive movement in the 16 century 1. Renovatio and Reformation 2. Protestantism and political fragmentation 3. The Council of Trent (1545-7; 1551-2; 1562-3) 4. The Jesuits 5. Counter Reformation Overseas Age of Religious Warfare Objective: To show how Calvinism was deployed for political ends 1. Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559) 2. The rise of Calvinism in France 3. Regency of Catherine of Medici 4. St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre (1572) 5. The Edict of Nantes (1598) The Military Revolution Objective: To examine a major historiographical debate and to draw connections between religious wars and the rise of Absolutism in the 17 century 1. Battle of Lutzen 2. Michael Roberts (1956) 3. Geoffrey Parker (1976) 4. David Parrott (1985) 5. John Lynn, Jeremy Black (1991) and Clifford J. Rogers (1993) 6. Importance of the Debate A Tale of Two Cousins: Louis XIV and Charles II Objective: To draw connection between changes in warfare and political centralization 1. Absolutism as a political ideology 2. Relation of absolutism to taxation 3. Louis XIV (1643-1715) and Charles II (1660-85) Superstition and Reason: The New Science Objective: To explain the religious context of the new science and explain the link between science and philosophy 1. The confessionalization of Europe and the Witch Craze 2. Intellectual Context of the 17 century 3. The New Science Impact of Science on Political Philosophy in the 17 century Objective: to explain the link between science and philosophy 1. Descartes and the 30 years war 2. The Cartesian Method as a new way of thinking 3. Links to Political Philosophy in England a. Sir Robert Filmer b. Thomas Hobbes c. John Locke 4. Conclusions Agricultural Change in the Dynamic 18 century Objective: To link growth to agricultural change. To explain use of micro-histories in study of pre-modern Europe th 1. Population growth in the 18 C 2. Agricultural reform a. 3 field to 4 field system b. Enclosure movement c. Clearances 3. Social impact New Technologies and Industrial Transformation Objective: to link industrial transformation to agricultural change in the 18 Ch 1. The textile industry: from guilds to cottages 2. The putting out system 3. From wool to cotton 4. New inventions a. Flying shuttle b. Spinning jenny c. Water frame d. Steam engine 5. Social impact Sugar and the slave trade: the Portuguese Atlantic Objective: To explain Portugal’s change in fortune in the 18 century; to relate to the rise of the slave trade to sugar production 1. Sugar production: from Madeira to brazil 2. Slave trade from Luanda 3. Gold rush in Brazil (1693) 4. The Lisbon Earthquake (1755) Deism and Atheism in the 18 Century Objective: To show how religious conflict and a search for tolerance shaped Enlightenment thought 1. Toleration and religious tolerance 2. The Philosophes and Pierre Bayle 3. Skepticism and Deism 4. The Encyclopedie (1751-72) Enlightenment Thought in Eighteenth Century France Objective: To show the impact of Enlightenment thought in late decades leading up to the French Revolution 1. The financial crisis of Louis XV 2. Intellectual Influences a. Baron or Montesquieu (1689-1755) b. Francois Marie-Arouet—Voltaire c. Jean-Jacques Rousseau 3. Enlightened Despotism 4. Chancellor Maupeou vs Parlements (1770-71) The French Revolution Objective: To explain causes and impact of the French Revolution 1. Chancellor Maupeou vs Parlements (1770-710 2. Political Instability in the late 18thC 3. Causes of the French Revolution a. Political crisis: calling of the estates general b. Physiocrats and the Bread Riots c. Military Crisis and the Marquis de Lafayette 4. The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen 5. Impact Conclusion Objective: Identity the four main themes of course 1. Re-Structuring Christian Europe After Reformation 2. Evolution and Impact of Warfare 3. Challenging established authority 4. Changes Leading to Dynamic 18thC Identification Terms 1.Thirty Years War Who: Catholics vs Protestant and Calvinists vs Lutherans What: was a devastating war, based on political and religious differences, Germany was very fragmented as the Peace of Augsburg gave to lots of independent sovereignty, there was also lots of religious division as the population was about half Protestant and half Catholic and there was lots of suspicion that the ‘others’ would attempt to take over, Calvinism was also gaining a strong foothold in the Empire and they had lots of support from other nations making Lutherans fear them, ended with Treaty of Westphalia which was the first general peace in Europe after such a large war, it reasserted the Treaty of Augsburg (ruler of land determines religion) and gave Calvinists legitimacy, pope had no power to oppose this, treaty only perpetuated German division and weakness Where: Holy Roman Empire When: 1618-1848, mid 17thC Why: this war fits into the theme of challenge to authority as it was due to religions challenging each other and it shoed that the pope no longer the authority, also the theme of impact of war on society as it only furthered division in Germany 2.Eighty Years War Who: What: Where: When: Why: 3.Standing armies Who: Monarchs of Europe What: after war armies continue to stand (used to be that king would call knights to fight for them only in war) now he hires soldiers directly and they work permanently to train them and have them on hand at all times which leads to further increase of tax hat nobles don’t like but he can threaten the angry nobles with the army – circular effect of power Where: present in France, England and Spain (?) When: 17thC Why: relates to the theme of evolution of warfare as we see armies developing full time armies that become strong and powerful and further centralize power of king 4.Representative assemblies Who: European governments such as England and France What: assemblies and groups of nobles usually appointed by the king to represent the greater nation and restrict power of king, had the job of keeping things in check and not allowing king to centralize power Where: Europe When: late 17thC Why: relates to the themes of dynamic 18thC as this change in government structure gave rise to the modern political structure we see as of the 18thc, also was a challenge to established authority of King and all their power 5.Witch-craze Who: church and political leaders vs ‘witches’ What: religious fragmentation leads to kings wanting conformity in their nation so everyone unites against the witches, was due to the division in religion, reformation spurred panics and the papacy and secular governments wanting to conform their people and eliminate competition Where: Western Europe When: 1400s-1700s Why: this is a way for kings to centralize power, it shows an evolution in warfare and a restructuring of Christian Europe, 6.New Science Who: Copernicus, Galileo, Decartes What: new discoveries regarding material (earth and heavens composed of matter in motion), mathematical (math replaces common sense) Where: Western Europe When: 17 century Why: fits with theme of dynamic 18thc century as these findings changed the way the world would proceed form then on, also deals with challenging established authority because although not purposely, the finding challenged the traditional beliefs taught by the church 7.Cartesian Method Who: Rene Descartes What: a type of philosophy in which all conclusions must be rigorously demonstrated, not dependant on accepted authority, not accepted on the basis of fatih Where: France, Western Europe When: 17 Cth Why: relates to defying authority both politically and religiously, wanted a new way of thinking, also influenced war politics in 30yrs war 8.Glorious Revolution Who: William of Orange and Mary II vs James II What: revolution lead by William of Orange to kick James II (catholic) our of English monarchy and restore Anglican Church and parliament, Where: England When: 1689 (late 17 c) Why: event illustrates a restructuring of Europe post reformation as England was restructuring its monarchy due to religious conflict and change 9.Convertible husbandry Who: farmers What: type of agricultural production in which land did not need to rest after a harvest so land was always growing and soil was always good, cattle fed off crops and in turn they made the soil healthier, more crops, more cattle—more people! Where: Invented in Flanders When: early 18thC Why: the new dynamics of agriculture lead to an increase in food and thus an increase in people, which was a change, that contributed to the dynamic 18thC 10.Acts of Enclosure Who: small farmers, peasants, parliament What: acts of parliament that closed off farm land so peasants could no longer afford to grow things Where: Scotland and England as well as other countries When: early 18thc Why: had large impacts on society as new crops were introduced, higher nutrition and more meat but small farms were wipes out-changes leading to dynamic 18thC 11.Highland Clearance Who: Landowners and peasants What: landowners kicking peasants and farmers off their land to make more room for sheep Where: Scotland and England When: 1763-1775 (late 17thC) Why: 12.Parliamentary monarchy Who: British Monarch and Parliament What: Where: England When: Why 13.The Ottoman Empire Who: Islamic, Turkish based dynasty and empire What: controllers of a huge part of the world, traded with Europeans, rival of Christianity, Enlightenment thought discussed Islam Where: North Africa, Middle East and South East Europe When: 14-20thC Why: the insights the Enlightenment thought brought to the study of Islam and the new interactions Europeans would be gaining through trading lead to a dynamic 18 Cth 14.William the Silent Who: William of Orange, referred to as silent due to his small inner circle What: lead the revolt in Netherlands to be independent from Spain, was a Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist, was the governor of many provinces in Holland. This religious war gained organization and inspiration by merging with Calvinists Where: France, Germany, and Netherlands When: 1533-1584 (16thC) Why: William was involved with religious wars of the mid 16thc, especially regarding Catholics vs protestants thus he fits in the theme of restructuring of Europe after reformation 15.Dutch East India Company Who: Dutch Empire What: trading company based in East Asia that produced spices, displaced Portuguese dominance the land and prevented English from gaining foothold for many years, controlled many Islands near Indonesia—colonial master of region Where: East Asia, Indonesia, Java, Moluccas and Sri Lanka When: 1602 (early 17thC) Why: 16.Mary Wollstonecraft Who: Writer and Philosopher What: writes about women’s rights, counters ideas of Rousseau and accuses him of lmiting women’s rights—proto feminist Where: Britain When: mid to late 18thC Why: challenged the then common and respected beliefs of Rousseau and other enlightenment philosophers by claiming they neglected half of the population’s rights by not including women 17.Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army Who: Oliver Cromwell, British What: part of British civil war, successful military strategist that won the war for English, was a huge army—parliament wanted is banned but he just disbanded them instead and lead to military rule until Cromwell’s death, also called parliamentary army, his army conquered Scotland and Ireland by killing Catholics Where: Britain When: mid 1600s (mid 17thC) Why: shows the impact of strong armies and how they can take control of a country, illustrates the impact and evolution of warfare and armies, also shows a development of absolutism as a conquest of centralized power 18.Cardinal Richelieu Who: Chief minister under Louis 13 th What: assisted in leading military campaigns and solidifying French monarch, patron of the arts, during 30yrs war his interests were to support Swedish in order to protect French and tie down Hapsburgs in Germany, laid groundwork for French absolutism and attempted to impose royal administration on France Where: France When: 1585-1642 Why: shows the extent people would go to for centralized power and to gain control of Europe post reformation, also illustrates new evolution of war by siding with enemy’s enemy, 19.Versailles Who: Louis 14 What: huge castle/palace/village build by Louis for propaganda and political image, nobles paid to live there for status and then Louis could use them to support him. He was dependant on them and them on him Where: Versailles, France When: built 1676-1708, moved there in 1682 Why: result of strong centralized power, shows the extent to which monarchs would go to centralize power and maintain control, also shows how Europe had to restructure after reformation 20.Bishop Bossuet Who: tutor of Louis 14, political theorist, influenced Louis concept of royal authority What: defended divine right of king, Where: France When: Late 27 Cth Why: he challenged the established authority and belief that only popes were chosen by divine right, also shows the extent to which monarchs went to maintain absolute power 21.Peace of the Pyrenees Who: French and Spanish What: peace between France and Spain after 30yrs war, France gained territory in Artois and Flanders, and Philip IV of Spain reluctantly agreed to his daughter's marriage to LOUIS XIV. She was to renounce her claim to the Spanish throne in exchange for a subsidy. Because Spain could not pay the subsidy, the renunciation became void, giving Louis a claim on the Spanish Netherlands and resulting in the War of Devolution. Where: When: 1659 Why: is the moment when France became Europe’s dominant power and from which Spain never recovered, this turn of events not only lead to a dynamic 18thC, it also shows a change in warfare as the tactics used in this war caused Spain to suffer greatly and the treaty showed a use of new tactics 22.John Locke Who: What: most influential enlightenment philosopher, political thinker, criticized absolutism, foundation of liberal thinking, Where: England When: 1632-1704, 17thC Why: Locke was famous for challenging established authority, which believed in absolutism and rights of nobles and rich where as Locke was writing about life, liberty and property for all, his writings and philosophy also was a change that lead to a dynamic 18thC in which revolutions were based on the writings of philosophers like Locke and influenced the future of Western Europe 23.Revocation of the Edict of Nantes Who: Louis 14, French people What: no longer political tolerance for Huguenots, in an effort to unite the nation Louis banned them form many things, tried to convert them, exiled many Protestant leaders, and forced baptisms on many kids, lead France to become a symbol of religious repression, especially in contrast to England Where: France When: Why: this is another example of centralization of power, also shows a restructuring of Europe after reformation as this revocation was in order to unite the country religiously and prevent religious war so countries needed to restructure their political beliefs to gain unity after the reformation occurred 24.War of Spanish Succession Who: Eventually enveloped most of Western Europe, French and Spanish vs England, Holland, HRE, What: fight over the crown of Spain after Habsburg king died, (land was given to Louis’ grandson—French), other countries wanted to secure Flanders as a middle land between France and Holland and giving Holland monarch his fair share of inheritance as he was also Habsburg, France went to war with inadequate funds while England had advanced weaponry and tactics, war was a bloody stalemate and eventually peace was made Where: When: 1701 Why: the English side had advanced tactics (thin, maneuverable troop columns) and weaponry (lock rifles, paper cartridges, ring bayonets) thus this war was so bloody and log due to the advanced in warfare 25.Nicolaus Copernicus Who: polish priest and astronomer What: wrote on the revolutions of heavenly spheres—writing that provides intellectual springboard of criticism of dominant view, shifts idea from geo-centric universe to sun-centric universe which challenges authority because it goes against scriptures and church’s authority, we are not central to universe as god’s creation, part of broader scientific revolution, he did not seek to create controversy, it was not an attack he wanted to fit his ideas with religion but it didn’t work out so well Where: Poland th When: late 15 to early 16thc Why: his works and writings were an obvious challenge to the established authority at the time that said the earth was at the centre, major challenge to Christian’s view 26.Galileo Galilei Who: mathematician, natural philosopher What: Professor of Math, publishes a work that brings him much praise (Starry Messenger) He uses a telescope and discovered 4 moons around Jupiter, argued not all bodies move around Earth (as was previously thought), Disputed view that heavens were unchanging , Popularized that the sun was at centre, not earth, He wasn’t the first to think all this he just popularized the ideas Catholic Church condemned Copernicism in 1616 and warned Galileo to stop spreading his views In 1633 he is tried by Inquisition Where: Italy When: 1609 his book was published (early 17thC), lived 1564-1642 (late 16 to mid 17 C) th Why: was a clear challenge of [accepted authority’s, he stated that the heavens were very complex 27.Sir Robert Filmer Who: philosopher What: divine right justifies arbitrary taxation by Charles I, Filmer argued that all legitimate government is ultimately based on God's gift to Adam of absolute sovereignty and private property over the whole world, and their transmission by primogeniture. Filmer's strongest argument was that in recognizing the continuation of legitimate rule over later generations without further consent, and in allowing private property established by fathers to be passed on to their sons, such theorists had in effect admitted his patriarchal theory Where: England When: 1588- 1653 Why: challenging authority 28.Leviathan Who: Thomas Hobbe’s Book What: philosophical justification for a strong centralized political authority, claimed humans were selfish animals and only existed to meet needs of daily life (not for higher spiritual or moral gain), Where: England When: 1651 Why: his ideas regarding humans, their behvaiour and purpose go directly against previous thinking and common Christian belief, he pissed off politicians on both sides, monarchy, and the Christian writers 29.Margaret Cavendish Who: scientist or natural philosopher What: was a well read and educated girl, wrote many books on the natural philosophy, first if only influential and respected women scholar of her time Where: England When: 1623-1673 (mid 17 C) th Why: she not only challenged authority by the things she wrote but also just by being a women involved in the sciences and by being educated 30.Jethro Tull Who: landowner and agricultural experimenter What: popularized use of iron plows to turn earth, created the seed drill Where: England When: 18 Cth Why: his inventions and ideas were important to the agricultural revolution which lead to more food, population growth and a dynamic 18thC 31.The Lisbon Earthquake Who: affected entire city of Lisbon and greater population of Portugal What: earthquake that damaged city of Lisbon which was the biggest and richest in Portugal and Europe Where: Lisbon, Portugal When: Nov 1755 Why: earthquake completely changed the course of European history in the 18thc Over night, Portugal goes from one of major players in Europe to being completely neutralized Portuguese empire came to standstill, smuggling was rampant, Brazil and west African slave trade was vulnerable to other powers (especially British), English then gained foothold in Spanish America (took advantage of weakness of Portugal at this time), Thanks to earthquake, England become more dominant 32.The Seven Years’ War Who: everyone, Mainly Prussia (German State) and England vs France and Austria What: Major European conflict that established Britain as the foremost maritime and colonial power and ensured the survival of Prussia as a major power in central Europe. The war was a continuation of the rivalries involved in the War of the AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION (1740–48). Britain and Prussia were allied, with Prussia undertaking nearly all the fighting in Europe against Austria, Russia, France and Sweden. FREDERICK II (the Great) of Prussia fought a defensive war against superior forces. Only his brilliant generalship and the withdrawal of Russia from the war in 1762 saved Prussia from being overrun. Overseas, Britain and France fought in North America ( FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS), India, and West Africa, with the British gaining major victories. At the end of the war, the Treaty of PARIS (1763) confirmed British supremacy in North America and India, while the Treaty of Hubertusberg left Prussia in control of Silesia. Where: Saxony When: 1756-1763 Why: Weakened French power, made British more determined to gain more power (especially in North America), this war was not only a help in getting England more power and control in Europe but also in the colonies, changed European power holders which made for a dynamic 18thC 33.Plantation economies Who: Mainly British colonies, slaves, land owners What: the economic system that produced crops, especially sugar, cotton and tobacco using slave labour on large estates Where: between Chesapeake Bay and Brazil When: late 17 early 18 Cth Why: completely changed dynamics of world, allowed for America to soar through cheap labour and therefore England and other great powers rose to riches, also the trading of slaves from Africa influenced greater politics and culture of America 34.George III Who: King of England What: wanted parliament to function under royal management, chose politicians that pissed off the wealthy nobles of Britain and thus could not gain the support of the HoC, Where: England, British Colonies When: becomes king in 1760, lives 1738-1820, was king that lost colonies to America Why: 35.The Persian Letters Who: Charles De Montesquieu What: letters supposedly written by Muslim Persians while visiting Europe, the representation of Islamic society in these letters used by philosophers to criticize European society , Where: When: 1721 Why: 36.Frederick the Great of Prussia Who: King of Prussia during 7yrs war What: military commander, enhanced Prussian power by winning war, strong connections to French, state had a loyal military, nobility, clergy, middle class and professors thus he could permit a more open enlightened environment Where: German state of Prussia When: lived 1712-86, ruled 1740-86, 18thC Why: prime example of enlightened absolutism, had everyone so loyal to him that enlightened thinkers in Russia supported him, made the state very unique and was a great part of the th dynamic 18 C 37.Jean-Jacques Rousseau Who: one of the great philosophes of 18 Ch What: questioned material and intellectual progress, morality of new commerce and industry society and the preservation of property rights, asked what constitutes a good life and how to reshape human history for this, outlines a political structure he believed could overcome evils of politics and society Where: France When: 1712-1778 , mid18th C Why: directly challenged social fabric of his time, his writings were very different than those of his fellow philosophers, questioned material and intellectual progress, morality of new commerce and industry society and the preservation of property rights, his writings, when they eventually gained influence, lead to a dynamic 18 C as they influenced the ways of thinking 38.The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Who: Loius16, National Assembly, What: Adopted by national assembly, Accepted by Louis 16, Included in 1791 constitution, the modern state was based on, the essential of the enlightenment thought, it was their answer to absolutism, state had to be founded on reciprocal contract, protection of man, religious tolerance, protection of human rights, social equality, uniform laws and taxes, militarism marginal role of church, responds to specific French problems but delivered in abstract and universal language thus it becomes foundation for further revolutions in the world Where: France When: 1789 Why: this new deceleration completely changed the path of French history and life for its people, plays a major role in the establishment of a dynamic 18 C, provided an intellectual framework for bringing into the realm of active civic life of many groups who were excluded 39.The Estates General Who: aka French National Assembly, representative government What: previously un-influential and rarely called upon, Louis16 was forced to call upon them during the financial crisis post 7yrs war, estates general was called in to fix deadlock between nobles and monarchy however the estates general had 3 groups and they were clashing with each other –the third estate was not cooperating (they were the ones that represented the general public) Where: France When: 1788 (late 18 C)th Why: the conflict that arose in the estates general assembly was a great contributor to the political conflict that was a cause of the 18 C, thus, the estates general before it became the national assembly was a factor that eventually lead to the dynamic 18 C that included the French revolution 40.Mercantilism Who: British, French, Spanish and Dutch empires What: close government control of the economy sought to maximize exports and accumulate as much precious metals as possible to enable the state to defend its economic and politic interests Where: North and South American colonies, African and Asian colonies, European power countries When: early 18 Cth Why: shaped the political and economic life of most of the world at the time, created for a th dynamic 18 C 41.Adam Smith Who: economic philosopher What: believed in economic liberty as the foundation for a strong economy, called for abolition of mercantilism, challenged the assumption that earth’s resources were scarce and one could succeed at the expense of others, founder of laissez faire economic thought which calls for limited role of government in economic life Where: Scottish When: 1723-1790 (late 18 c) th Why: clear challenge of established authority as he questioned and criticizes the popular economic theory of the time (the theory that supports the entire colonial world), also influences the political and economic thought and way Europeans see themselves which leads to a dynamic 18 Ch 42.Putting out system Who: peasants and urban merchants What: way of manufacturing in rural countryside, creates cheaper textiles for cities and supplements income of peasant families Where: Britain When: Mid 18th c Why: Part of industrial revolution, produces cheaper materials which leads to new patterns of consumption and variety of styles—fashionable consumption 43.Microhistory Who: modern day historians What: in order to identity causes of revolutions and changes in 18 C, historians wrote micro- histories looking at specific, looked at demographics and wrote micro-histories to identify underlying social structures Where: North American and Europe When: 1960s and 1970s Why: 44.Parish Registers Who: What: detailed individuals from churches who were buried, married etc All churches had to keep a register Through these registers, historians were able to learn about individuals and begin to put together demographic numbers th Various studies have been done that show growth in the 18 C Where: used throughout western European churches When: late 17 to early 18 Ch Why: shows historians that there was in fact a population growth and helps us determine why 45.Donatario system Who: What: Where: When: Why: 46.Methuen Treaty Who: English and Portuguese What: treaty between the two countries that essentially allowed for free trade and gave over almost all of Portuguese power to the English, like a free trade treaty between the two, wine into England, wool to Portugal, they join together against French, this treaty allows British to gain foothold into brazil, slave trade and into Spanish America Where: When: early 1700s during war of Spanish succession Why: one could argue that this treaty completely changed the future of Europe, especially England and Portugal and the powerhouses at the time, this treaty essentially gavethngland control over everything thus the treaty was a key player in creation of a dynamic 18 C, to an extent it also shows the tactics and treaties countries were willing to sign simply for political control and success in war 47.The Middle Passage Who: African slaves What: refers to the long, terrible journey slaves endured to get to America from Africa on boats Where: on boats in Atlantic Ocean When: 1518-1888, 18 C th Why: this was a key element of the slave trade, bringing the slaves to the plantations was the start of the type of life and treatment they would endure, the rough conditions on the boats were key to the success of the slave trade, cotton plantations and thus colonial powers of Dutch, English, French, Spanish and Portuguese 48.Tennis Court Oath Who: National Assembly of France What: an oath taken by assembly members to continue to sit until they had a new constitution for France, Louis did not like the oath Where: Versailles, France th When: 1789, late 18 c Why: first it shows the defiance of the authority—the king, the results of this oath are significant—now the monarchy could only govern in cooperation with National Assembly, anyone could join assembly-not just privileged, they wrote a new constitutions that was more liberal and changed the future of French politics, was one of the causes of French revolution 49.Voltaire Who: aka Francois-Marie Arouet, most influential philosopher What: literary dictator of Europe, attacked war, religious persecution and criticized unwarranted optimism of human condition, thought reflected pessimistic undercurrent of Enlightenment, major voice against religious persecution and pro-toleration, He liked the peaceful religious coexistence in England, the intellectual freedom and respect for academics, felt French monarchy and nobility was irresponsible where as in England everything was peaceful (exaggeration), He proved the English system worked through merchantry and linked it to social structure, Wanted middle class in France to be liberated—they were waiting, He was still a conservative in politics –not democracy but an unempeated monarchy with vested interest in people Where: France, exiled to England, back to France then to Prussia w/ Fredrick the Great When: 1694-1778 (late 18 C) th Why: his writings were very critical and influential to the French revolution, like many philosophers, his ideas called for a new type of politics and culture and people began realizing they had a right to these new ideas, his ideas were a major challenge to the established authority of the time and lead to a dynamic 18 C that included the French revolution 50.Diderot’s Encyclopedia Who: Dennis Diderot, enlightenment philosopher What: first encyclopedia, momentous occasion of the print culture, 17 volumes completed in 1772, showed the enlightenment determination to probe life on earth, plea for freedom of expression, Diderot was the editor, allowed for enlightenment ideas to reach broader audience Where: edited, compiled and mostly in France but available all over western Europe When: lived 1713-1785, 18 C, published in 1751 Why: not only were the ideas in this book a serious challenge to respected authority and accepted theories but these ideas also sparked revolutions, changes and development in western Europe that lead to a dynamic 18 c th Lecture March 5, 2012 Superstition and Reason: New Science in the 17 Century Objective: To explain the religious context of the new science and explain link between science and philosophy 1. The Confessionalization of Europe and the Witch Craze 2. Intellectual Context of Seventeenth Century 3. The New Science 4. Rene Decartes and the Cartesian Method Astronomy begins with Copernicus using telescope and mathematics (1543) The findings clash with biblical thought Europe in 17 C was entering age of reason, onto modern society 17thC was a time for empowerment of scientist to challenge religious authority But this is a simplistic interpretation 16thC of religious Warfare is referred to as Europe’s period of confessionalization (faith is built)  Various religious sects determine what it means to be a good Christian, definitions of what a Catholic is, what a Calvinist is Practice of social discipline  If you didn’t conform you were punished or even killed Spanish, Roman and Portugese especially enforced social discipline but also in Holy Roman empire 1560-1660 Witch Hunt Maleficium= evil sorcery Belief in magic and sorcery was common, coexisted with belief in bible at a time Magic became linked with devil so it was a crime, not supported by Church Witchcraft became to be a crime 1486, text written called The Hammer of Witches (Malleus Maleficarum) Interest in witches and persecuting them grows and in 1560 it takes off  Witches persecuted to an unprecedented extent Causes of increase of Witch Hunt  Mainly women, causes related to gender o Women can’t preach or have a role in society as much  Keith Thomas: Anglican Church had no ritual protection against witch craft, they didn’t sanction exorcism like the Catholic church did so when protestants were threatened by witches, they were more prone to execute them (as opposed to societies were they could just exorcize the witch) There were some who were against the witch hunt, didn’t believe witches were real  But these ideas were dwarfed by those writing for the trial and execution of witches The age of reason is also the age of superstition (poking hole in grand narrative) 1610 Galileo Professor of Math, publishes a work that brings him much praise (Starry Messenger) He uses a telescope and discovered 4 moons around Jupiter, argued not all bodies move around Earth (as was previously thought) Disputed view that heavens were unchanging Popularized that the sun was at centre, not earth He wasn’t the first to think all this he just popularized the ideas Catholic Church condemned Copernicism in 1616 and warned Galileo to stop spreading his views In 1633 he is tried by Inquisition By 1600, unorthodox ideas and teachings had proven to be risky (don’t criticize the church!!) This had lead to wars So when Galileo publishes his work, Holy Roman Empire is on the brink of 30 yrs war In medieval they may have embraced Galielo’s ideas and figure out a compromise between conflicting ideas but In context of 17thC it had to be condemned and run out, new ideas to conflict Church were unaccepted New science is different than old science  New science is Material (earth and heavens composed of matter in motion) and it was mathematical (math replaces common sense)  It doesn’t matter what you perceive, its what you can prove with math  Measuring repeatable phenomenon Scientist come from all over Europe Ideas were transmitted and made public by printing press Lecture March 14, Week 9 Agricultural Change in the Dynamic Eighteenth Century Objective: to link growth to agricultural change. To explain use of micro-histories in study of pre modern Europe th 1. population growth in the 18 C 2. agricultural reform  three field to four field sys
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