Hernan cortes: given the opportunity to explore cuba in 1519 encountered the surrounding aztecs. Met dona marina, acted as his interpreter and aided him to their culture. Moctezum (chief of the aztecs) gave him a gift and cortes misinterpreted that as surrender. Cortes led the ambush and destroyed tenochtitian in 1523. Petrarch (1304-1374) known as the father of humanism. Study of the humanities, focuses on classical philology. Humanists focuses on rhetoric, poetry, history and moral philosophy. Christian humanism: new ideas of religions and the renaissance linked together. Conflict between the two sets of popes. One in rome the other in avignon. Divided the loyalties of states and individuals. Both popes opposed conciliarism, because they wanted full superiority. Nailed the 95 these to the door of a church in 1517. In the assembly of worms he was asked by the pope to renounce his theses. Felt the demands of the church were too high.