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Hist21 Napoleonic Era and Final Exam.pdf

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University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Christine Ekholst

Nov. 22, 2012 The Early Modern World Napoleonic era and the Final Exam Reign of Terror, 1793-94 • Rousseau- women’s place was in the home and not in the public • Revolution turned away from women’s rights • Declaration of Man- didn’t improve women at all • Robespierre executed the women who wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Woman The Declaration of the Rights of Women was written by: Olympe de Gouges • Revolution alarming for the other countries in Europe, fear ideas would spread- set on preventing the spread of the Revolution French Revolutionary Wars • 1792 War against Austria • Louis XVI executed in 1793 • Countries took active hostility towards France • April 1793- France at war with every single country in Europe: Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, and Holland the most important • First Coalition Levee en masse • All males citizens conscripted into the army • Entire society dedicated to warfare- defense of revolutionary ideas and prevent the return of a monarchy • Total War- entire society and economy dedicated to warfare State of War • Terror- purge the state of internal enemies • The Directory, 1795 o Faced massive resistance o Removed laws controlling prices on grain- price of bread increased- food riots in Paris o Faced resistance from royalists o People who fled France- came back to fight for a restored monarchy in France • Louis- died in prison at age 10 • Protests against the constitution- food riots Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) • Ordered troops to shoot at the crowds in Paris- symbolizes ruthlessness • Young men have to compensate fro the fight by being aggressive Napoleon Bonaparte was in fact: Average • English heel longer than the French heel- depicted Napoleon as very short • Supposed to have a lifeguard of very tall men- looked shorter Italian Campaign (1796-97) • Napoleon a Jacobite- radical revolutionary • Military talent- would arise quickly through the military ranks • Great Britain would continue to fight- economic interests • Napoleon in charge of Italian Campaign • Lombardy- owned by Austria (directed at Austria) o Series of victories o France controlled entire Italian peninsula and Switzerland • Strike at country that Brits had economic interests: Egypt o Major assault at Ottoman empire o Failure- Napoleon still came back as a military hero • Taken things in his own hand- Peace Treaty of Austria- against the wishes on his own government • 1799 November Coup o Consulat o Governed by three consuls (Napoleon one of them) Napoleon the only ruler- divided power • No free political life in France • 1800-04 o Arrested, executed a large number of opponents o A Dictator  Allowed male suffrage- but could only chose candidates he had approved of  Office of prefects- chose all of these prefects of these departments in France  Installed heavy censorship- anything came out of printing press- enforcing his regime  Banned political clubs  Held referendums- for and against reforms • Plebiscites o Confirmed Napoleon emperor in 1804 o Restored an absolute regime • Reform of the tax system o Support trade and infrastructure of France- bank of France • Concordat in 1801 o Relationship with the pope- worse during the reign of terror (worship of supreme being), Catholic worship in France o Religions tolerated in France • Napoleonic Code 1804 o Code civil o Created on centralized system o Model for other European countries o All applicable law are in one law code- civil law (common law- decisions of judges put above all) o Protected ownership of property- all birthrights and privileges void o Restricted women’s rights- enforced laws of husbands and the family Conquering Europe (1805-10) • Main enemies: Britain, Austria, and Russia • Renamed the army of France- Grande Army • Divided army into separate corps (infantry, cavalry and artillery) o Travel much faster to the same place by going separate ways • Military leadership- led by loyal commanders- trained in military schools • Troops successful- morale of French soldiers- truly believed in leader Napoleon- nationalism- fought for the nation of France Battle of Austerlitz, 1805 • Marches army into Germany • Austria, Prussia, and Russia surrendered to Napoleon- turned into allies states- controls entire continent • 1810- dominated the continent of Europe • French controlled government • Re-drew the map of Europe- kingdom of Westphalia, duchy of warsaw o Napol
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