Study Guides (238,098)
Canada (114,918)
History (225)
HIST 1010 (44)

Study Notes HIST 1010.pdf

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Christine Ekholst

Witch Crazes The roles of witches changed dramatically from being a driving influence of society and apart of everyday life in the Medieval Period- being either good or bad- to being deemed as satanic symbolth performing sexual aths and hthing pacts with the devil- from the late 15 century up to the 16 and 17 centuries. Significance: Influenced by the social tensions at the time where there were severe economic changes when the population dramatically increased and the value of money deflated. The poor became poorer and the rich became richer as the price of grain significantly increased. The witch crazes stirred up mass events called “panics” where several people were accused of witchcraft- and ended up confessing due to torture. Due to the social and economic stress at the time, the solution was to target somebody or a group of people who were blamed for it. Facts: • 60 000 people were executed where 75-85% of the people were female Dates: • 1486, Maleus Maleficarium’s The Hammer of the Witches o Introducing the satanic and sexual nature of witches- witchcraft associated with females- and how to deal and detect witches. Social and Economic Organizations 1500s-1800s The Nobility was divided into groups: 16 century: Nobility of the Robe (state servants, close to the king) and Nobility of the Sword (state commanders) Introduction of a new middle class in urban society-> political representation in society and town elites-> “the fat people”, the new rich people with a capitalist mentality The household included the husband being the dominant figure while women’s roles in the household were not seen a public Profound economic changes were seen in this time as deflation occurred as the increasing population put more demand on food- this ultimately created tensions in society as ¼ of the population in Europe were poor. 18 century: High nobility-> Grandes or Peers, who were closer to the King, and the Low (County) Nobility-> Bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie were the urban middle class who focused upon their own work ethic and thrift- thought selves as separate from the high nobility who they saw as lazy, and parasites in the nation. Bourgeoisie emphasized the separation of public and private sphere- marrying for love and dividing work and home. Men were responsible for work and women stayed at home- where they had a stable enough of an income where the women did not have to work- housewife. Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Women didn’t need an education- should be honoring their husbands Cultural Changes: Coffee Houses were established as they served as public places where men discussed news that was occuring. Also Reading Rooms were established- almost alike our public libraries today- where it housed the development of public opinions. This led to much of the middle class not only owning religious books, but also secular books- reading for the sake of reading. Artistic opinion flourished in theatre, art galleries, and musical orchestras- where professional education was needed. In the mid 1700s the population was dramatically increasing due to the decreased mortality rate- agricultural revolution, and wars being fought in the colonies and naval battles taking place (not effecting the populations- only military) Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) • Limitations on how big our population can get- the land could only sustain a certain amount of people (reflecting upon the Black Death where famines occurred and then the plague) • Against growth * Via The Enlightenment for continuation Absolutism and Constitutional Monarchy England, Sweden, and Holland represented constitutional monarchies, and the most significant of absolute monarchy was shown in Louis XVI’s reign. Constitutional monarchies had limits and restrictions upon their monarchs- as they had to rule with parliament who had a right to decide who the monarchy functioned whereas absolute monarchies had almost no limits on their power. England • Charles I, reigning from the mid 17 century, is the best example of a constitutional monarchy as his powers were restrained by parliament- The Long Parliament from 1640-1653-where they eventually executed him for treason in 1649 and replaced him with their leader Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell became “Lord Protector of England” putting England into a Commonwealth period. Eventually after Cromwell’s death, parliament brought Charles II on the throne of England in 1660- the Restoration. France • Louis XVI, “The Sun King” is the best example of an absolute monarch who raised France to being the most prestigious country in Europe during his reign from 1643-1715. From not only reducing the men in his council who were Bourgeoisie- educated and well-fit for their positions instead of the higher nobility, to taking France away from a feudal state, he enforced his “One King, One Faith, One Law”, “d’etat c’est moi” (I am the state) upon the country. In his Edict of 1626, he suppressed the nobility and destroyed feudal councils- this led to the nobility having to find new roles in society- le lever- as they thrived at the court of Versailles. The Sun King is fitting as France certainly revolved around him. Dates: Long Parliament: 1640-1653 Charles I executed: January of 1649 Louis XVI’s reign: 1643-1715 Edict of 1626- suppressing the nobility’s powers and destroying feudal councils Mercantilism Mercantilism was the belief in balance where imports either equaled or were less than the exports- later being that the goods were more expensive to buyers to they had a bigger export than import. During the conquest for the New World, the Mercantilism Wars began as the European countries were attempting to establish trade routes and had the ultimate goal of taking over trade. With the consumer revolution in Europe happening at this time, the demand for good dramatically increased (sugars, coffees, teas, etc.). With the Balance of Power taking place where no nation should be so strong it dominates other countries in place, there were definitely tensions in trade as Europe established a system of alliances. Trading companies like the Dutch East India Company (established in 1602) and the English East Trading Company (established in 1600) took place where there were multiple owners, investors and shares held in the companies- creating monopolies and the stock market. A Protectionists view developed where each country held tight regulations on trade and held their monopolies ,which influenced trade, should only benefit the homeland. The only way countries could gain more was by taking somebody else’s monopoly by smuggling or robbing- happening frequently to the Spanish caravels (Zero Sum Game) Impact The War of Jenkins Ear in 1738- insult to England as a Spanish captain cut Captain Jenkins’s ear off- pickled into a jar of rum- further tensions in trade. The Seven Years War (1756-1763)- resulted over a change in alliances where it my predominantly England vs. France and other European countries involved. The most significant part of this war is that it was fought globally. The French’s loss in these wars fueled the French Revolution. Trade: 1670, The Hudson’s Bay Company- furs from Canada America- tobacco, rice, and timber- later cotton as well West Indies- sugar, cocoas, and coffee South America- sugar Dates: • Dutch East India Company- 1602 • English East Trading Company- 1600 • War of Jenkins Ear, 1738 • Seven Years War (1756-1763) Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution happened in gradual steps, encompassing a lot of different scholars sharing their ideas where it was expanded and built upon by others. Gutenberg’s Printing Press was crucial during this period as it was the medium that dist
More Less

Related notes for HIST 1010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.