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The Enlightenment Review Session.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Christine Ekholst
Semester
Fall

Description
The Enlightenment Review Session Society of 18 century Nobility divided: • High (Grandes, peers) o King and court, often speaking French- in Prussia and Russia as well- France cultural center of Europe o Shared culture- fashion and ideas of superiority • Low (country, gentry) o Worked and functioned as ministers o Influenced policies o Rural and landowners • Service (wealthy but not as powerful as high nobility) Changes: • Jean-Baptiste Colbert- middle class o New middle class affecting politics in society th o 18 century and Enlightenment • Middle class- Bourgeoisie- urban o Development of own culture- work ethic and thrift- saw as different from aristocrats o Saw selves of separate- proud of being middle class o Identity made in contrast of nobility- lazy living in wealth by oppressing others- parasites • Home and the family- Bourgeoisie o Separating on public and private sphere o Husband and wife should be joined in love o Dividing work and home- gendered  Men responsible for public and work- women responsible for the home  Active and passive spheres division- symbol of wealth- could maintain a wife who doesn’t have to work- housewife ideal born  Women dressing in clothes that aren’t mobile • Jean-Jacques Rousseau o Women didn’t need education- should care for husband and household • Working Class o Wife had to work to support families • Nobles spending habits, way of life criticized Cultural Changes: • New resources- coffee houses public places where men met and discussed news- Enlightened culture developed- literacy spiking- people reading more and more • Middle class owning secular books- not only religious books o Seeing and exploring new ways of thinking- reading out of pleasure • Reading Rooms- libraries- development of public opinions o Enlightenment allowed for different ideas and contrasting views • Culture flourished- forms of Art- public opinion o Theatre- satires- used humor to present political ideas o Art Galleries- 18 century- public museums- idea developed o Musical composers o Professionalization of singers, orchestras- permanent theatre and opera houses created • Larger groups of poor people o Mid 1700s- population growth o Thomas Malthus- limit to how large the population would grow- population would adjust itself- land could only sustain a certain amount of people (Black Death- famines then the plague) o Mercantile thinking (Malthus- against growth) • Decreased mortality- people died of warfare o Wars fought in colonies, naval warfare- affecting soldiers and not population • Agricultural Revolution o Increased production of food- famine disappearing- wouldn’t die but undernourished o Poorer groups bearing the largest tax burden Views • Aristocrats trying to hold onto rights France • Bourgeoisie- not respected by the upper class- in turn didn’t respect nobility • Large population of poor people • Tensions in society- explodes- France • Philosophical work views- pessimism and optimism o Voltaire- pessimistic ideas- can only achieve change in small steps, ability to create and equal society o Thomas Hobbes- life on earth brutish nasty and short- the reality for the people in Europe, humans driven by desires- needed control of a strong ruler o John Locke- influential on Enlightened thinkers- people capable of respect and restraint, state as a contract- to protect individuals- property and pursuit of happiness, white men had natural rights- right to life, liberty and state- given by God What was the Enlightenment? • An intellectual movement • General desire to question authority- ALL AUTHORITY- aristocracy, royalty, the church • Emphasized rationalism • Knowledge-> progress o Knowledge positive- underlined the importance of education- institutional and outside of institutions • Many different opinions, many contrast • Core took place in France- but others came from different parts of Europe- wrote and produced in different genres- Scientific Revolution- foundation of their thinking • Philosophes o Intellectuals- wrote philosophy- political tract- theatre Voltaire • Views changed over time • Philosophical Letters- British better than the French- less feudal privileges, restraints on monarchs, rationalism o Introduced Newton’s ideas- emphasized Scientific Revolution- Enlightenment the continuation of political and reason ideas • Book banned- in prison, hunted or exiled • Emilie de Chatelat o Translate Newton’s Principia into French o Taught Voltaire the methodology of science • Candide o Depicts adventures o Satire- humor to advocate certain ideas o Pessimistic book- Candide optimistic- believes everything is for the best- live in the best of worlds o Makes fun of naïve optimism o Slavery- “this is the
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