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HIST 1010 Final Exam Prep (F11)

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University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

1 HIST 1010 Final Exam Review: Important People There will be 2 terms/persons as well as 2 documents to identify/discuss. Each answer should be approximately 1 paragraph in length. 4.5 marks = / 20 marks Persons 17 Century Monarchs Henri IV: Henri IV’s assassination (May 1610) left infant son (9 years) King (Louis XIII) Louis XIV: Sun King; most glamorous/powerful ruler of 17 century; dominated Europe; remembered youth and would never allow people to get close to him again Cardinal Richelieu: Architect of unified French state; powerful minister; highly appointed in church; civil servant of King; became powerful through service to King; came from humble background and rose up Colbert: Established Quebec Russia in Early Modern History Ivan IV: Ruled with great brutality (Ivan the Terrible); bloody approach to ruling; unconstrained ruler; brutality against nobles who contradicted/questioned him Peter I, Catherine I: Attempted to “modernize” Russian state; called for French culture at all levels th Early Modern Natural Philosophy – Mid-17 Century Francis Bacon: Inductive method; determining truth; popularizes methods of experiment; empiricism; base thinking of what you observe/measure Copernicus: Proposed heliocentrism; sun-centered universe; made attempts to soften his theory; fueled scientific revolution Brahe: Observed movements of plants; gathered astronomical data; advanced/improved proof of heliocentrism Kepler: Laws of planetary motion; worked out planetary orbit; planets move with variable speeds; did not follow circular orbits but elliptical orbits Galileo: Claimed that book of nature contradicted scholastic philosophy; house arrested for pushing heliocentric theory; famous for confrontation with church; book of nature vs. book of God; studied heavens and developed telescope Descartes: Discourse on Method; deductive method; cognito ergo sum – all things can be doubted; uncertainty of knowledge; firm knowledge based on scientific theory; all things can be doubled Newton: Principia, 1687; principles/laws of math/physical knowledge; helps scientists understand what happens in heavens and Earth; apple falls on head – discovers gravity 18 Century Thomas Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population; study of pop.; pop. increases geometrically, whereas food supply could never increase that rapidly; as 2 pop. grows, starvation and crisis grow also; predicted as pop. increased food production could increase only arithmetically Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations (1776); describes system of “perfect liberty”; developed theory to explain dynamics of emerging world; model of how you obtain prosperity; how to get well off and stop starving to death Early Modern World Leif Eriksson: Newfoundland; first European to come to N. America; Viking; sailed under Spanish flag Enlightenment Descartes: Nature has no soul; scientific populiser; our bodies are like machines; animals have no soul; dualism – mind vs. body Diderot: Encyclopedia; promotes technology; emphasizes utility of knowledge; ways to take advantage of natural world Rousseau: French political philosopher; educationist and author; tremendously influential ideas; used data from indigenous societies and found societies that did not have inequality; Social Contract > how modern society can achieve freedom; blueprint for Marxism, communism Terms 17 Century Monarchs Edict of Nantes: 1589; Named after W France city; doctrine of religious toleration; everyone gains rights of worship (but rights narrowly defined) Versailles: Symbol of absolute monarchy; trap nobility (“prison”); practice of controlling nobles; center of culture; prevented nobles from stirring up trouble at home (Paris); take nobles away from regional strongholds and keep them “captive”; assign them jobs/activities to keep them busy Russia in Early Modern History Boyar: Russian noble Romanov: Ruling dynasty all the way up to Russian Revolution Serf: Condition of servitude; limited by law/custom; attached to soil 18 Century Capitalism: Putting $$ to work; advancement in long distance trade New Men: Entrepreneurs, capitalists, innovators (esp. textile); go to cities, form new labor supply Witches and Destruction of Traditional Society Witches: Not real, but people afraid; white magic (good) – supernatural remedies (medicine); black magic (bad) – curses; ensure good behavior; punish people; mainl
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