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HIST 1010 Final Exam Prep - Candide Essay (F11)

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HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

1 HIST 1010 Final Exam Review: Candide Essay Section 3: Essay Situate Voltaire’s Candide in light of the major changes (religious, economic, scientific, and social) that took place during the Early Modern period (answer should be about 2 pages). In what ways does Candide represent something new; in what way does it reflect the changes that we have studied throughout the course? Students must be able to provide specific references to events in the novel as well as specific references to historical changes that took place. Possible themes and questions to consider: Voltaire’s views on war, views on religion and authority, Enlightenment ideas, views on education and philosophy, and of course, the ending, how can “cultivate one’s garden” be interpreted? /20 marks Introduction: Candide Candide is a French satire first published in 1759 by Voltaire, a philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment. Candide is a fictitious novel that is significantly tied in with the people and events in Voltaire’s time period. When situating Candide in the light of the major changes that took place during the Early Modern period, it is clear to note the economic, religious and social changes that are satirized within the novel. Voltaire looks at the economic changes in terms of transatlantic trade, the Enlightenment ideas of the time, and the religious changes in terms of clerical corruption. Body Paragraph 1: Transatlantic Trade and Slavery o Travel across Atlantic o Slaves, colonies, triangular trade o Expansion of global market, capitalism o Travel to Buenos Aires o Exploration of New World and ability to travel o Consumer revolution: Demand for sugar – went from being something luxurious to something common to everyday life o (P. 51) Came across negro; belonged to Dutch; worked in sugar-mills; Dutch converted negro to their religion Relate to course: o Consumer revolution: Demand for sugar – went from being something luxurious to something common to everyday life o Religious approval of enslavement as tool for converting people in New World to Christianity o Labor of slave obtained through physical punishment (Candide – negro is missing leg and arm; arm lost in machinery, leg lost because he tries to run away) o African slaves work on sugar plantations 2 o About 9 million slaves forcibly transported to New World Body Paragraph 2: Enlightenment Ideas o Pangloss – “Everything is for the best in this best of all possible worlds.” > reductively simplified version of philosophies of a number of Enlightenment thinkers o Dr. Pangloss connotes mindless be
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