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HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

Note from the uploadeur: Notes on the Textbooxk: "The Western Heritaxge" Vol B 1300-181x5 - Tenth Edition This is a combinationx of notes done throuxgh a study group for thxe exam. Unfortunately, it is nxot the full collectionx. Pages missing includex: (357-406)& (408-433) [basicxally chapter 13 & 15] Downloaded for free from CHAPTER 12- THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS THE FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION (345-356)  Huguenots – French Protestants, term is derived from Besancon Hugues, the leader of Geneva‘s political revolt against the House of Savoy in the 1520‘s o They were under surveillance in France o First Wave of Protestant persecution in France:  Motive began after the capture of the French King Francis I, by the forces of Emperor Charles V at the battle of Pavia in 1525 o Second wave:  Protestants set up anti-Catholic posters (Oct. 18, 1534) all over Paris and other cities  Mass arrests of suspected Protestants followed  Government retaliation drove John Calvin and French reform party into exile  1540- Edict of Fontainebleau: subjected Huguenots to the Inquisition  1551- Edict of Chateaubriand: subjected new measures against the Protestants by Henry II Power shifted away from France to Spain (1559)  The shift began with an accident o During a tournament held to celebrate the union between France and Spain, the French king, Henry II, was mortally wounded. o This brought sickly Francis II to reign, who died after 1 year (1559–1560)  Married Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots o Monarchy weakened and 3 powerful families saw their chance to control France and began to compete for the young king‘s ear 1.The Bourbons, whose power lay in the south and west 2.The Montmorency-Chatillons, who controlled the center of France  Both these families developed strong Huguenot sympathies (for political reasons)  The Bourbon Louis I [prince of Conde](d. 1569), and the Montmorency-Chatillon admiral Gaspard de Coligny (1519–1572) became the political leaders of the French Protestant resistance 3.The Guises (strongest) were dominant in eastern France  They succeeded in controlling Francis II  Their name would remain interchangeable with militant, reactionary Catholicism Appeal of Calvinism  In 1561, there was more than 2,000 Huguenot congregations in France o The majority in two regions: Dauphiné and Languedoc o They held important geographic areas and were heavily represented among the more powerful segments of French society o 2/5 of French aristocracy joined Downloaded for free from  They hoped to establish within France a principle of territorial sovereignty akin to the Peace of Augsburg  Calvinism served the forces of political decentralization.  Calvinist conversations among powerful aristocrats as a means to achieve political goals o John Calvin and Theodore Beza saw this as a means to advance their cause o Beza converted Jeanne d‘Albert, the mother of the future Henry IV o The prince of Condé was converted by his Calvinist wife in 1558 o Calvinist religious convictions proved useful to their political goals  Two main reasons to become a Calvinist  with something to gain from the other o Political  Conde and Colingy brought the military power to the Huguenots  Wanted to gain political power o Religious  Resistance made Calvinism a possible religion in Catholic France  Secular/political reasons cast suspicion on religious intent  Wanted to spread Calvinism, the religion Catherine de Médicis and the Guises  After Francis II‘s death in 1560, the queen mother, Catherine de Médicis (1519–1589) became regent (substitute monarch) for her minor son, Charles IX (r. 1560–1574).  She tried unsuccessfully to reconcile the Protestant and Catholic factions  Catherine first concern was always to preserve the monarchy o She feared the power and deceit of the Guises  Cooperation/Allies with the Protestants: o she issued the January Edict: granted Protestants freedom to worship publicly outside towns—although only privately within them—and to hold synods  Guise Revolt: o In March 1562, the duke of Guise massacred many worshippers in Champagne o This marked the beginning of the French wars of religion o Crown under Guise control  Cooperation was the only means of surrender for the Protestants The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye  First war of Religion (April 1562 - March 1563) o The duke of Guise was assassinated o Troops from Hesse and the Palatinate assisted the Huguenots o September 1568 - August 1570:  Condé was killed, and leadership passed to Coligny  He was a far the better military strategist  The peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1570) [after the third war]: o The crown granted the Huguenots religious freedoms within their territories and the right to fortify their cities o After the treaty, Coligny became Charles IX‘s most trusted adviser  Queen Catherine sought to balance one side (Huguenot and Guise extremes) against the other Downloaded for free from o She wanted a Catholic France, like the Guises, but feared a Guise-dominated monarchy o She plotted with the Guises against the rising Protestants o She would remove anyone who threatened the monarchy  As she had earlier sought Protestant support when Guise power threatened to subdue the monarchy, she now sought Guise support as Protestant influence grew.  Coligny influenced the king of France to a plan an invasion of the Netherlands to support the Dutch Protestants o Catherine recognised the danger in this move:  This would put France against Spain  They would have little hope to defeat Spain  The Spanish had just had a victory over the Turks at Lepanto in October 1571  The Saint Bartholomew‘s Day Massacre (August 24, 1572): [of the Protestants] o Supported by Catherine, though made under panicked circumstances o Coligny was struck down, but not killed, by an assassin‘s bullet (August 22, 1572)  Catherine + Guise plot to eliminate Coligny  After failing, Catherine panicked and convinced Charles that a Huguenot coup was going to attack the crown and he needed to execute the Protestant leaders immediately o On Saint Bartholomew‘s Day  Coligny and 20,000 fellow Huguenots were butchered in Paris o Pope Gregory XIII and Philip II of Spain rejoiced over the Protestant massacre  It meant no opposition in his efforts to subdue the Netherlands o Consequences:  The event furthered the fight between Catholics and Protestants beyond French borders  It gave Protestants everywhere, a powerful reason to fight against and resist the Catholics Protestant Resistance Theory  Protestant leaders view on resistance against the emperor: o Luther:  approved resistance to the emperor after the Diet of Augsburg in 1530 o Calvin:  Condemned wilful disobedience and rebellion against lawfully constituted governments as un-Christian  He also taught that lower magistrates had the right and duty to oppose tyrannical higher authority  John Knox [Scots reformer] (1513–1572): o Laid the groundwork for later Calvinist resistance. o ―First Blast of the Trumpet against the Terrible Regiment of Women‖ (1558), he declared that the removal of tyrant was a Christian duty  After Saint Bartholomew‘s Day, Calvinists learned the need for an active defence of their religious rights Downloaded for free from  Classical Huguenot theories of resistance appeared in three major works of the 1570s: o Franco-Gallia of ―François Hotman‖ (1573), a humanist argument that the Estates General of France historically held higher authority than the French king o The second was Theodore Beza‘s ―On the Right of Magistrates over Their Subjects‖ (1574), which justified the correction and even the overthrow of tyrannical rulers by lower authorities. o Third, Philippe du Plessis Mornay‘s ―Defence of Liberty against Tyrants‖ (1579) advised princes, nobles, and magistrates beneath the king, the guardians of the rights of the body politic, to take up arms against tyranny in other lands The Rise to Power of Henry of Navarre  Henry III (r. 1574–1589) o Found France between two ruling parties who would willingly kill him if he was founded to be a heretic or a tyrant o He looked for a middle course  He received support from a growing body of neutral Catholics and Huguenots, who put the political survival of France above its religious unity  Politique  The Peace of Beaulieu (May 1576): o Granted the Huguenots almost complete religious and civil freedom o Catholic League forced Henry to revoke it and Huguenots were once again limited to areas worship  The Protestants were led by Henry of Navarre, a legal heir to the French throne  In mid-1580s, the Catholic League, with Spanish support, became dominant in Paris o Day of the Barricades (1588): Henry III attempted a surprise attack against the league.  The effort failed, and the king had to flee Paris o Being both weakened (by the Catholic League‘s power) and empowered (by the English victory over the Spanish Armada): he had both the duke and the cardinal of Guise assassinated  These murders was a turning point:  the Catholic League (led by another Guise) reacted furiously  The king was forced to ally with the Protestant Henry of Navarre in April 1589.  Murder of Henry III gave, Bourbon Huguenot Henry of Navarre the French throne as Henry IV (r. 1589–1610) o Spain retaliated to the new Protestant power (to maintain Catholicism and keep France politically weak)  This intervention made Henry IV a stronger monarchy because his people believed in his right to have the throne, as the heir o Henry IV  Was widely liked  Was informal in dress and manner  Had wit and charm Downloaded for free from  Was a politique- he was tired of religious strife and prepared to place political peace above absolute religious unity  On July 25, 1593, he publicly abandoned the Protestant faith and embraced majority religion, Catholicism  1596, the Catholic League was dispersed, its ties with Spain were broken, and the wars of religion in France ended The Edict of Nantes (1591) o It recognized minority religious rights within an officially Catholic country (religious truce) o Granted the Huguenots freedom of public worship, the right of assembly, admission to public offices and universities, and permission to maintain fortified towns  These freedoms were limited to their own towns and territories  The Treaty of Vervins (May 2, 1598): ended hostilities between France and Spain  A Catholic fanatic assassinated Henry IV in May 1610 MAIN EVENTS OF THE FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis ends Habsburg-Valois wars 1559 Francis II succeeds to French throne under regency of his mother, Catherine de Médicis 1560 Conspiracy of Amboise fails 1562 Protestant worshippers massacred at Vassy in Champagne by the duke of Guise 1572 The Saint Bartholomew‘s Day Massacre leaves thousands of Protestants dead 1589 Assassination of Henry III brings the Huguenot Henry of Navarre to throne as Henry IV 1593 Henry IV embraces Catholicism 1598 Henry IV grants Huguenots religious and civil freedoms in the Edict of Nantes 1610 Henry IV assassinated IMPERIAL SPAIN AND PHILIP II (R. 1556–1598) New World Riches  Spain gained wealth from populous Castile and from the Spanish colonies in the New World Increased Population  Due to the new America wealth European populations increased dramatically  Europe‘s population exceeded 70 million by 1600  Increased wealth + population = inflation o There were more people and more coinage in circulation than before, but less food and fewer jobs o Wages stagnated while prices doubled and tripled in much of Europe  Spain: o Wealth concentrated in the hands of the few (the propertied, privileged, and educated classes) o The traditional gap between the haves——and the have-nots widened Efficient Bureaucracy and Military  Philip II shrewdly organized the lesser nobility into a loyal and efficient national bureaucracy Downloaded for free from  He managed his kingdom by writing, he was an solitary man  He was a generous patron of the arts and culture  Don Carlos, his son was ―mad and treacherous‖ and died under suspicious circumstances in 1568 Supremacy in the Mediterranean  The Mediterranean belonged to Spain, and the Europeans were left to fight each other  Philip‘s armies also suppressed resistance in neighbouring Portugal o The union with Portugal not only enhanced Spanish sea power, but it also brought Portugal‘s overseas empire in Africa, India, and Brazil into the Spanish orbit. The Revolt in the Netherlands Cardinal Granvelle  The Netherlands was the richest area not only of Philip‘s Hapsburg kingdom, but of Europe as well.  Margaret of Parma (Philip‘s half sister) + the council of state controlled the Netherlands o The leader of the council was Antoine Perrenot (1517–1586), [aka Cardinal Granvelle]  He planned to establish a centralized government directed from Madrid in the Netherlands  The merchant towns of the Netherlands were also Calvinist strongholds o They were more disposed to variety and toleration than to obedient conformity and hierarchical order o Two members of the council of state opposed the Spanish, who attempted to reimpose their traditional rule with a vengeance 1. Count of Egmont (1522–1568) 2. William of Nassau, the Prince of Orange (1533–1584), known as ―the Silent‖ because of his small circle of confidants.  In 1561, Cardinal Granvelle tried to tighten the control of the Catholic hierarchy over the country and make it a Spanish ward o However, he was removed from office by Orange and Egmont The Compromise  Philip II tried to enforce the decrees of the Council of Trent throughout the Netherlands o A national covenant called the Compromise was drawn up  A solemn pledge to resist the decrees of Trent and the Inquisition.  They called for aid from French Huguenots and German Lutherans, and a full-scale rebellion was pending The Duke of Alba  The higher classes did not agree with his revolt and sent out the duke of Alba and his army to suppress the revolt  Several thousand suspected heretics were publicly executed  The Spanish levied new taxes, forcing the Netherlands to pay for the suppression of its own revolt  Combined persecution and taxation sent thousands fleeing from the Netherlands during Alba‘s rule Resistance and Unification  William of Orange was in exile in Germany during these years Downloaded for free from o He became the leader of a broad movement for the independence of the Netherlands from Spain  Like France, political resistance in the Netherlands gained both organization and inspiration by merging with Calvinism. The Pacification of Ghent  Spanish Fury (November 4, 1576): o When Don Luis de Requesens died (1576), the Spanish mercenaries, were left without a leader and unpaid o As revenge they destroyed and killed thousands in Antwerp  Pacification of Ghent (November 8, 1576.): o The ten largely Catholic southern provinces (what is roughly modern Belgium) now came together with the seven largely Protestant northern provinces (what is roughly the modern Netherlands) in unified opposition to Spain  It declared internal regional sovereignty in matters of religion, a key clause that permitted political cooperation among the signatories, who were not agreed over religion  Perpetual Edict (February 1577): o Don John, the victor over the Turks at Lepanto in 1571, took over Spanish land forces o Confronted by unified Netherlands‘ resistance he lost and was forced to sign the Perpetual Edict:  It provided the removal of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands within twenty days  William of Orange took over the Netherlands The Union of Arras and the Union of Utrecht  Don John and Alexander Farnese of Parma revived Spanish power in the southern provinces  Union of Arras (January 1579): o Formed by southern provinces and made peace with Spain o These provinces later served the cause of the Counter-Reformation  Union of Utrecht o Formed my northern provinces Netherlands Independence  Spain continued to try and conquer the Netherlands with no success  The Netherlands were helped by England and in 1596, France and England formally recognized their independence  Full recognition came with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 Downloaded for free from Missing Chapter 13 CHAPTER 14- NEW DIRECTIONS IN THOUGHT AND CULTURE IN THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES p. 407-419  16 and 17 century – scientific change  New ideas and methods of science – ―Natural philosophy‖ (at the time), challenged modes of thought associated with late medieval times: Scholasticism and Aristoleian philosophy  The process that established the new view of the universe is the Scientific Revolution (SR)  SR was not rapid – it was a complex movement with many false starts and brilliant people suggesting wrong as well as useful ideas  SR involved older knowledge as well as new discoveries  Science achieved great cultural authority in the Western world than any other form of intellectual activity, and the authority and application of scientific knowledge became one of the defining characteristics of modern Western Civilization  Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) o was a Polish Priest and Astronomer o Published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres – described as a revolution-making rather than a revolutionary text o Copernicus provided an intellectual springboard for a complete criticism of the then-dominant view of the position of the earth in the universe  Ptolemaic systems – cluttered systems which people based mathematical calculations relating to astronomy > thought that the earth was the centre of the universe in an outlook known as Geocentrism  Copernicus‘s On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres challenged the Ptolemaic picture and proposed a heliocentric (sun centred) model > Copernicus‘ model was no more accurate than Ptolemy‘s > Copernicus argued that the farther planets were from the sun, the longer they took to revolve around it *allowed for people to think in new directions  Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) took the next major step toward the conception of a sun centred system o Did not embrace Copernicus o Suggested that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun, but that the moon, the sun, and other planets revolved around the earth o Brahe‘s assistant Johannes Kepler set forth the first astronomical model that actually portrayed motion (the path of the planets) and those orbits were elliptical not circular *published ideas in his founding book The New Astronomy > used Copernicus‘ ideas and Brahe‘s empirical evidence to solve the problem of planetary motion  1609 Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) first turned a telescope on the heavens o his career illustrates that the forging of the new science involved more than just presenting arguments and evidence o 1610 left the University of Padua for Florence where he became the philosopher and mathematician to the Grand Duke of Tuscany Downloaded for free from o Now pursuing natural philosophy o To gain support he named the moons of Jupiter after the Medicis o Said to be a high-profile advocate of Copernicanism > popularized the system, and also articulated the concept of a universe subject to mathematical laws *he argued that nature displayed mathematical regularity in its most minute details o A world of quantities was replacing one of qualities o The new natural philosophy portrayed nature as cold, rational, mathematical, and mechanistic  Isaac Newton (1642-1727) o Englishman o Established the basis for physics that endured more than two centuries o 1687 published The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, or Principia Mathematic o reasoned that the planets and all other physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction, or gravity *the attraction of gravity explained why the planets moved in an orderly manner o demonstrated the relationship mathematically, but made no attempt to explain the nature of gravity itself o believed in empiricism *one must observe a phenomena before attempting to explain them  If a single idea informed all of these philosophers though in different ways, it was the idea of mechanism *mechanical metaphors/language of machinery – turned to the image of the clock  Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was an Englishman and the father of Empiricism and of experimentation in science o Set an intellectual tone and helped create a climate of conducive to scientific work o Attacked the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered *he believed scholastic thinkers paid too much attention to tradition and to the knowledge of ancients o One of the first major European writers to champion innovation and change *wanted to abandon scholastic modes of learning and thinking o Compared himself to Columbus - plotting a new route to intellectual discovery o Believed that expanding natural knowledge had a practical purpose and its goal was human improvement o Linked science and material progress in the public mind o Believed the pursuit of new knowledge would increase the power of governments and monarchies  Rene Descartes (1596-1650) o Mathematician who invented analytic geometry o Developed a scientific method that relied on deduction than empirical observation and induction o 1637 published Discourse on Method – rejected scholastic philosophy and education and advocated thought founded on a mathematical model o deduced the existence of God – the presence of God was important to Descartes because God guaranteed the correctness of clear and distinct ideas Downloaded for free from o Divided existing things into 2 categories: thinking things, and things occupying space – mind and body respectively o His deductive methodology lost in favour to Scientific Induction whereby scientists draw generalizations derived from test hypotheses against empirical observations  Thomas Hobbes (1588-1697) o Most original political philosopher of the 17 century o Supported the new scientific movement o Published the Leviathan – his aim was to provide a rigorous philosophical justification for a strong central political authority > portrayed human beings and society in thoroughly materialistic and mechanical ways o Felt human beings exist only to meet the needs of daily life o Only a sovereign commonwealth established by a contract between the ruler and the ruled could enable human beings to meet those needs by limiting the free exercise of the natural human pursuit of self-interest with all its potential for conflict o Rejects the idea that humans are naturally sociable > saw them as self centered creatures who lack a master o Thought that rulers should be absolute and unlimited in their power *believed absolute authority might be lodged in either a monarch or a legislative body o Christian writers attacked his refusal to recognize the authority of God and the church as standing beside or above his secular sovereign  John Locke (1632-1704) proved to be the most influential philosophical and political thinker of the 17 century o Based political authority on the patriarchal model of fathers ruling over a family o Government must be both responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed o Regarded human beings in their natural state as creatures of reason and basic goodwill (opposite of Hobbes) o Felt government exists to protect the best achievements and liberty of the state of nature, not to overcome them *government is of limited authority o The relationship between rulers and the governed is that of trust, if rulers betray that trust, the governed have a right to replace them o Claimed that each individual was required to work out his or her own religious salvation o Powerful founder for the future extension of toleration, religious liberty, and the separation of church and state  One of the most fundamental features of the expansion of science was the idea that genuinely new knowledge about nature and humankind could be discovered  With the diffusion of science into the universities new supports of scientific knowledge came about o University support of science varied according to country, with the Italian universities being more supportive than the French o ―institutions of sharing‖ allowed information and ideas associated with the new science to be gathered, exchanged and debated Downloaded for free from  attempt to separate the discussion and exploration of natural philosophy from the religious and political conflicts  the expansion of the European economy and the drive toward empires contributed to the growth of science by bringing back to Europe specimens and experiences that required classification, analysis and observation  Groups associated with new science saw themselves as championing modern practical achievements of applied knowledge and urging religious toleration, mutual forbearance, and political liberty *these people are the social base of the Enlightenment  Institutions of European intellectual life excluded women – accept for a few o Queen Christina of Sweden (1632-1654) brought Rene Descartes to Stockholm to provide the regulations for a new science academy o Noblewomen and women from the artisan class contributed through their husbands or male relatives *women associated with the artisan crafts achieved greater freedom o Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673) made significant contributions to scientific literature – she understood new science, and criticized the Royal Society for being more interested in novel scientific instruments than in solving practical problems *most important work was Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy, and Grounds of Natural Philosophy – she was the only women in the 17 century to be allowed to visit a meeting of the Royal Society of London *composed a Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World which introduced women to new science THE NEW SCIENCE AND RELIGIOUS FAITH (421-432)  Science‘s challenge to religion, 3 issues: 1. Certain theories and discoveries did not agree with biblical statements about the heavens 2. Who would decide conflicts between religion and science—church authorities or the natural philosophers? 3. Many religious thinkers believed that science seemed to replace a universe of spiritual meaning and significance with a purely materialistic one  However natural philosophers tried to connect faith and science together, and did not see them as separate  This increased the spread of science and its widespread acceptance in educated European circles The Case of Galileo  Famous incident and conflict between science and religion = the condemnation of Galileo by Roman Catholic authorities in 1633  In response to Protestant emphasis on private interpretation of Scripture, the Council of Trent (1545–1563) had stated that only the church itself possessed the authority to interpret the Bible o They also adopted a more literalist mode of reading the Bible lest the Protestants accuse it of abandoning Scripture o Galileo defended Copernicanism at this time Downloaded for free from  In a Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615), Galileo, as a layman, had published his own views about how scripture should be interpreted to accommodate the new science. (See ―Galileo Discusses the Relationship of Science to the Bible,‖ page 424.) o His actions resembled a Protestant who looked to himself rather than the church to understand the Bible o In 1615 and 1616, he visited Rome and discussed his views openly and aggressively  In early 1616, however, the Roman Catholic Inquisition formally censured Copernicus‘s views o Because of his disagreement with the literal word of the Bible and the biblical interpretations of the Church Fathers o Galileo was formally informed of the condemnation  He agreed not to advocate that Copernican astronomy was physically true, but only to suggest that it could be true in theory.  In 1623 Pope Urban VIII was elected (Galileo‘s acquaintance) o He gave Galileo permission to resume discussing the Copernican system, which he did in ‗Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems‘ (1632)  The book defended the physical truthfulness of Copernicanism  It made the opposing side favouring the old system appear slow-witted  Urban felt betrayed and ordered an investigation of Galileo‘s book.  Galileo was condemned, required to renounce his views, and placed under the house arrest for the last nine years of his life Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith  Blaise Pascal (1623–1662): o French mathematician and physical scientist who surrendered his wealth to pursue a self-disciplined life, became influential in his efforts to reconcile faith and the new science o He was against both dogmatism and scepticism  Dogmatism: exemplified by the Jesuits, he considered their casuistry (i.e., arguments designed to minimize and excuse sinful acts) a distortion of Christian teaching  Scepticism: He rejected them because they either denied religion altogether (atheists) or accepted it only as it conformed to reason (deists)  Pascal allied himself with the Jansenists: o Catholic opponents of the Jesuits o They shared Calvinists beliefs in human beings‘ total sinfulness, their eternal predestination to heaven or hell by God, and their complete dependence on faith and grace for knowledge of God and salvation  Pascal‘s views on religion: o He felt it was not the domain of reason and science o The essential truths in the Christian religion:  A loving God exists, and human beings, because they are corrupt by nature, are utterly unworthy of God. o He believed the atheists and the deists of his age had overestimated reason:  Reason was too weak to resolve the problems of human nature and destiny  Reason should make you have faith in the divine grace of God Downloaded for free from o Was convince that belief in God improved life psychologically and disciplined it morally  He urged his contemporaries to seek self-understanding by ―learned ignorance‖ and to discover humankind‘s greatness by recognizing its misery  He hoped to counter false optimism of the new rationalism and science The English Approach to Science and Religion  Francis Bacon: o His framework for reconciling science and religion was:  There were two books of divine revelation: the Bible and nature.  In studying nature, the natural philosopher could achieve a deeper knowledge of things divine, just as could the theologian studying the Bible. o Both books had the same author after all (God) o Natural theology based on a scientific understanding of the natural order would thus support theology derived from Scripture.  The religious thought associated with such deducing of religious conclusions from nature became known as physico-theology o It allowed the new physics and astronomy to spread rapidly o Faith in a rational God encouraged faith in the rationality of human beings and in their capacity to improve their lot once liberated from the traditions of the past.  John Ray in ‗The Wisdom of God Manifested in His Works of Creation‘ (1690): o Argued that God placed human beings in the world to understand it and then, having understood it, to turn it to productive practical use through rationality  Scientific advance and economic enterprise came to be interpreted in the public mind as the fulfillment of God‘s plan: Human beings were meant to improve the world CONTINUING SUPERSTITION  Many Europeans remained preoccupied with sin, death, and the devil and in the power of magic and the occult Witch Hunts and Panic  Between 1400 and 1700, courts sentenced an estimated 70,000 to 100,000 people to death for harmful magic (maleficium) and diabolical witchcraft  Charges against Witches: o Inflicting harm on their neighbours o Attending Sabbats (mass meetings) where they would ―fly‖ o Indulging in sexual orgies with the devil, who appeared in animal form (mostly a he-goat o Cannibalism: particularly the devouring of small Christian children o A variety of ritual acts and practices, often sexual in nature  Why did witch panics occur in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries? o The disruptions created by religious division and warfare were major factors (The peak years of the religious wars were also those of the witch hunts.) Downloaded for free from o Some argue that the Reformation spurred the panics by taking away the traditional defences against the devil and demons, thus compelling societies to protect themselves pre-emptively by searching out and executing witches. o Political consolidation by secular governments and the papacy played an even greater role, as both aggressively conformed their respective realms in an attempt to eliminate competition for the loyalty of their subjects. Village Origins  In village societies, feared and respected ―cunning folk‖ helped people cope with natural disasters and disabilities by magical means o Magic made one an important person in the villages  In village society witch beliefs may also have been a way to defy urban Christian society‘s attempts to impose its orthodox beliefs, laws, and institutions on the countryside Influence of the Clergy  As the church grew it encountered semi pagan cultures rich in folkloric beliefs and practices that predated Christianity and clashed with them  Christianity also practised Magic: o They could transform bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ (the sacrament of the Eucharist) o Eternal penalties for sin into temporal ones (the sacrament of Penance or Confession) o Cast out demons who possessed the faithful  In the late thirteenth century, the church declared its magic to be the only true magic. o Magic came from God or from the devil  From God: were properly exercised within and by the church  From Devil: anyone who practiced magic outside and against the church  Attacking accused witches became a way for the church to extend its spiritual hegemony. o To identify, try, and execute witches was a demonstration of absolute spiritual and political authority over a village or a town. Who Were the Witches?  Roughly 80 percent of the victims of witch hunts were women, most single and aged over forty.  Inspired by misogyny  Three groups of women appear especially to have drawn the witch-hunters‘ attention: 1. Widows: lived alone in the world after the deaths of their husbands, were often dependent on help from others, unhappy, and known to strike out 2. Midwives: whose work made them unpopular when mothers and newborns died during childbirth 3. Women healers and herbalists: who were targeted because their work gave them a moral and spiritual authority over people whom the church wished to reserve for its priests End of the Witch Hunts  Several factors helped end the witch hunts:  Scientific point of view:  A witch‘s curse was mere words Downloaded for free from  With advances in medicine, the rise of insurance companies, and the availability of lawyers, people gained greater physical security against the physical afflictions and natural calamities that drove the witch panics BAROQUE ART  Baroque Art: o Denotes the style associated with seventeenth-century painting, sculpture, and architecture. o Baroque painters depicted their sub
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