HIST 1010 Study Guide - Final Guide: Maximilien Robespierre, Vise, Scientific Revolution

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10 Aug 2016
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Week 5 Chapter 14: Europe at War, 1555-1648:
The French Wars of Religion:
Who: Protestantism / Huguenots & Catholicism
When: 1562 civil war broke out
Where: France
What: Protestantism came to France and the society began to divide along religious lines. The
Guises family was in charge of the army and the Church in French, and the family was extremely
Catholic. The Bourbons family was Protestants and had direct heirs to the French throne.
Protestants and Catholics raised arms against each other and civil war ensued. Catholic leaders
encouraged the slaughter of Huguenot congregations and openly planned the murders of their
leaders. Noble factions and irreconcilable religious differences were pulling the government apart.
Why: The two sects of Christianity didn’t agree with one another and both couldn’t exist in the
same country.
Significance: The religious differences separated France and created a civil war within the
country.
St. Bartholomew Massacre (textbook):
Who: Medici family, Henry of Navarre, Catholics, and Huguenots
When: 1572
Where: Paris, France
What: Catherine de Medici arranged for her daughter Margaret and Henry of Navarre, a
Huguenot, to be married in order to create peace between the two sects. Huguenot leaders
arrived in Paris to celebrate the momentous day but the Guise family had a different plan. They
planned to assassinate leading Huguenots in hopes that Protestantism would altogether collapse.
Although many Huguenots were killed, many managed to escape, including Henry of Navarre.
Why: Although Catherine de Medici tried to create peace in France; the Guise family was in
charge of the Church in France and they wanted the country to be strictly Catholic.
Significance: The religious differences between the Huguenots and the Catholics led to many
deaths of those who didn’t believe in the primary faith.
St. Bartholomew Massacre (first hand document):
Who: De Thou / Catholics and Huguenots
When: 1572
Where: Paris, France
What: The plan was to exterminate all the Protestants and the Queen approved it. It was agreed
upon that the King of Navarre would be spared for the sake of the new royal alliance. The duke of
Guise was put in charge of the whole ordeal. The signal to commence the massacre would be
given by the bell of the palace and those committing the assassinations would wear white linen
tied around the left arm and a white cross on the hat in order to recognize each other and avoid
accidental murder. Coligny was brutally murdered through stabbings without any signs of fear or
hesitation. His body was then tossed out a window and the Catholics continued to do torture most
mortem by cutting off his head, tossing his body around, and dragging it through the streets, and
eventually burning it.
Why: The extreme overkill on the Huguenot leader was meant to instill fear in others who
practiced the religion and was used as a sign of a warning that if they did not conform to
Catholicism, the same could happen to them.
Significance: It prolonged the wars of religion; a whole new generation of Huguenots was hungry
for revenge. Not only was the Guise family a target for revenge but also the monarchy was
subjected to the wrath of the Huguenots too by giving the stamp of approval on the massacre.
Catherine de Medici was able to maintain a distance between the crown and the leaders of the
Catholic movement, which no longer existed.
Edict of Nantes (textbook):
Who: Henry of Navarre, the Catholics and the Huguenots
When: 1598
Where: France
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What: Henry of Navarre became the king of France, but to do so he had to become a Catholic.
The Edict of Nantes granted limited toleration to the Huguenots. Neither Henry’s conversion nor
the document stilled the hatred between the two faiths. Sporadic fighting between the two
continued and fanatics on both sides continued to fan the flames of religious hatred.
Why: After the assassinations, the Huguenots wanted revenge against the Catholics and the
Catholics still refused to let the other religion live on. Neither side chose to give up on the fight
regardless of the circumstances that the Edict of Nantes granted
Significance: Henry IV tried to compromise with both sides yet his efforts were failed.
Edict of Nantes (first hand document):
Who: Henry of Navarre, the Catholics and the Huguenots
When: 1598
Where: France
What: The Huguenots were allowed to practice their religion, live and abide in all cities and place
in France without being annoyed, molested, or compelled to do anything in the matter of religion
contrary to their conscience. Reformed practices still had to respect the laws of the Catholics, as
Catholicism was the dominant religion in France
Why: This was an attempt to make both sides happy and come to peaceful terms with each other
Significance: The Catholics still had supremacy over France but some freedom of religion was
granted to the Protestant followers, although there were still many stipulations and conditions.
30 Years War:
Who: Spanish Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Bavaria, Austria vs. France, Denmark, Sweden,
Dutch Republic, etc
When: 1618-1648
Where: All over Europe
What: The 30 years war was a Pan-European war, fought largely in Central Europe and France.
The isolated conflicts of the late 16th and early 17th centuries joined together in the 30 Years’ War.
The Thirty Years’ War began when the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II of Bohemia,
attempted to curtail the religious activities of his subjects, sparking rebellion among Protestants.
The Peace of Augsburg helped Protestants and Catholics to achieve rough equality within the
German states. Once elected king of Bohemia, Ferdinand Habsburg attempted to impose
Catholicism on his Protestant subjects. The Protestants appealed for aid to the Protestants in the
rest of the empire and to the leading foreign Protestant States (Great Britain, the Dutch Republic,
and Denmark). Ferdinand called upon the German Catholics, led by Bavaria, Spain, and the
papacy. War followed quickly. Frederick’s defeat at the battle of the White Mountain in 1620
forced all Protestants in central Europe to prepare for war. Ferdinand’s efforts to reverse the
Peace of Augsburg united Lutherans and Calvinists against him. King Gustavus Adolphus of
Sweden led the Protestant counterattack. After his death in 1632, the war entered a new phase
focused on the struggle between France and Spain. Peace was finally achieved in 1648 with the
Treaty of Westphalia.
Why: The 30 Years’ War confirmed the religious divisions of Europe; made religion irrelevant to
international relations. It broke Habsburg power and confirmed German disunity. It signaled the
rise of France as a global power. It ushered in age of the mall military: national armies, trained
with advanced weapons, instilled with discipline (“killing machines”)
Significance: More wars focused solely on religious differences. It reshaped the religious and
political map of central Europe, setting the stage for the old centralized Roman Catholic empire to
give way to a community of sovereign states.
Week 6 Chapter 15: The Experiences of Life in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1650:
Witchcraft:
Who: Witches
When: Stated in the late 15th century / 1500-1650
Where: Europe
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What: Magic for evil purposes was called black magic or witchcraft. Witches were believed to
possess special powers that put them in contact with the devil and the forces of evil. Late 15th
century, Church authorities began to prosecute large numbers of suspected witches. By the end
of the 16th century, there was a continent-wide witch craze. Witch confessions were obtained
under torture. Majority of accused witches were women over men. Accused witches were strip
searched to find the devils mark, which could be any bodily blemish. Most of the daily magic that
was practices included potions, charms, and prayers that mingled magic, medical, and Christian
beliefs. Churches transposed witches’ supposed ability to communicate with the devil into the
charge that they worshiped the devil. Churches could easily find people to testify in charges
against witches because of the widespread belief in the presence of diabolical spirits.
Condemned witches were burned, strangled, drowned, or beheaded. Witch hunting became a
profession and usually occurred where community tensions were great and central authority was
weak. There were tensions between the rich and the poor, newcomers and longstanding
residents, communal and individual interests, between different religious systems, and between
levels of government witches are “ideological criminals” who resist the claims of the state. Witch
hunting only ended when elite skepticism grew, reflecting the new philosophy or rationalism and
when tensions in village communities reduced.
Why: Europe was obsessed with a new phenomenon of witches existence and thousands of
people lost their lives because of accusations.
Significance: The fear of witches was a symptom that completely changed the world
The Recantation of Loos:
Who: Cornelius Loos and the Church
When: early 1590’s
Where: Imperial Monastery of St. Maximin
What: Cornelius Loos wrote a book called “On True and False Witchcraft”, which basically
defended witches. He declared the new phenomenon were the figments of an empty superstition.
He promoted that the flight of witches is false and imaginary and asserted that witches are
compelled to confess to things they have never done through the means of severe torture. He
was arrested and imprisoned for hindering the execution of justice against witches. He was forced
to revoke, condemn, and reject his own ideas to avoid being charged with heresy and treasons.
He promised to never promote these ideas again and recanted everything he wrote about and
said. He was then accused of relapse and was imprisoned, and once again let out. The third time
he managed to once again escape indictment through premature death.
Why: Proof that not everyone believed in the phenomenon of witches and their existence.
Significance: The Church didn’t like that Cornelius Loos was speaking out against them in the
topic of witches. He was persecuted and condemned for providing information to the public
against the Church saying that witches don’t exist and that innocent people are being punished
through false accusations.
Week 7 Chapter 16: The Royal State in the Seventeenth Century:
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes:
Who: Louis XIV
When: 1685
Where: France
What: The Edict of Nantes was revoked. The reformed religion was deemed false and all the
temples where the religion was practices were to be destroyed and demolished. Practice of the
religion was forbidden. All those who will not convert to Catholicism were banished or else be
punished by hanging. Schools weren’t allowed to teach Protestantism and children who were
reformed be converted to Catholicism. All property belonging to those who chose to leave were to
be confiscated and left behind.
Why: The Catholics once again persecuted the Protestants and the treaty that granted them
limited rights was ultimately revoked
Significance: More religious persecution took place within France and it ultimately ended up
being a huge mistake for Louis XIV. It was a political and social disaster for France. The
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