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Midterm Review.docx

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HIST 1150
Karen Racine

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Sept 13, 2012 Ottoman Empire – 4 pillars to success – Military strength/prowess o Conscription – Farming required taxes and the supply of soldiers o Janissary Army – Loyal to the ottoman empire not allowed to own land or marry for fair living, education, could be appointed to the divan (prestigious government body) – Flexibility in taxation system – Millet System – Where you went you took your laws with you – Highly centralized government with absolute monarchy Downfall “Sick Man of Europe” – Internal Rebellion – Industrial revolution – technology from outside is overcoming production – Communication with the bureaucracy – varying languages – Sultan required more money to perform religious ceremonies – Integration into world economy o Loss of trade routes and population movement and expansion o Communities become too reliant on sole commodities  Entire areas devoted to the production of cotton o Demand for gold and the devaluing of currency o Expansion of Markets  Commodities were sold outside of borders  Ottoman economy turns from internal trade to external (ex. Decline of Damascus [central] and the rise of Beirut[shores]) o Massive Inflation – Balance of Power in Europe o Various countries are developing into nation states o Played out in the ottoman empire over the lands and resources o South eastern Europe became central due to the Christian population  Europeans felt more comfortable dealing with Christians as opposed to Muslims, Christians developed more power  Religious minority began to grow in wealth and power o First capitulation  Otto/French deal to stop the growth of the Austro-Hunga Emp.  Otto – military protection, French – economic privileges  French allowed trade and exemption from tariffs/taxes  French merchant in Otto had to follow laws of France  Local ottomans were cut out of business, more money left Otto, growing resentment against the middlemen (Christians)  1798 Napoleon invades Egypt – Ottomans sent to occupy  On arrival the Otto’s are shocked - technology and civilization o Tanzimat – modernization of the empire  Scientific, Economics, Education, Military, Taxation  Europeans advisors arrive, Otto’s go to Brit/Fran for education  Reorganization of Military – creation of conscript army  Janissary rebelling, massacred in order to bring in conscript (1826)  Bureaucracy  Re-organization to reflect European political structures  Ministry of finance – Standardization of taxation  Ministry of Education – Standardization of Curriculum  Establishment of new legal codes – French legal system  Establishment of a Constitution and a Parliament; redistribution of power and greater equality (1876)  Manufacturing Industry  Encourage state-run industry to limit outside trade  Lacked resources and equipment and couldn’t compete with tariffs  Establishment of new court system under Ministry of Justice  Secularism – separation of law from religion, Millet law is eliminated, minorities become equal in the eyes of law  Permanent parliament – Young Turks  Fighting for ethnic nationality as opposed to religious  Wanted Turkey to be strong – Turkish nationalism  Introduction of democracy, nation-state (nationalism)  Downfalls:  Indebted to Europe, spending more on debt than reform  1850 - First foreign loan  1874 their debt totaled $360 M  1881 Bankruptcy and Europeans move in and take over (Ottoman Public Debt Administration), every financial transaction must be approved by Europeans o Long Term Political Significance of Tanzimat  Secularization  Beginnings of Democracy  Intro of Nationalism  Increasing Financial dependence upon Europe Sept 18, 2012 Nationalism in the Middle East: Zionism Zionism – Jewish nationalism Haskalah - 1700 Napoleon granted full rights to the Jews of France on the condition that they had to accept French secular law – loyalty to the French - Religious practice became very secretive - Secularization – Less religious practices and following nonreligious institutions and practices - In Eastern Europe 75% of Jews live in the Pale of Settlement: here Jews were not given rights and were told where to live with no claim to land or status European Nationalist Movements - Your identity is not in religion but your country and language - Mosses Hess: Rome and Jerusalem o The Jews return to Palestine and create a state o Sending them to Palestine was the only solution to discrimination - 1880’s a Czar of Russia is murdered and a Jewish Rebel is blamed - The next Czar implements a series of Jewish restraints - State sanctioned Pogroms against Jews meant attacks on Jews (homes, businesses, property) which the state supported - Lovers of Zionism o Underground cells spreading around Russia spreading the idea of Jewish emancipation and a Jewish state o Choverei Zion was the first group to try to move Jews to the middle east o First Aliyah (1882) was a wave of emigration of Jews to modern day Isreal, Not successful in creating a strong base Zionism in Western Europe - Zionism doesn’t catch on until it hits Western Europe - Dreyfus Affair (1891) – French Jewish General accused of treason - Theodore Herzl “Father of Zionism” o Shocked by the anti-Semitism during the court proceedings o Became a symbol of injustice against the Jews o Creates a political plan by forming the World Zionist Organization o Prior to this he initiates the World Zionist Congress (1897) which brought together leaders in the Jewish community to band together o The Congress forms the Jewish National Fund which is put in place to fund the movement of the Jewish communities o Negotiates with Germans and Ottomans for the creation of a small section of land to put aside for the Jewish National Movement o 1904 the Second Aliyah occurs which is very socialist  Creation of the first Kibbutz a communal farm where the Jews worked together Four Factors for the Rise of Turkish and Arab Nationalism - Arrival of European military advisors and other consultants to the Empire - Ottoman sponsorship of military science and educating students in Europe o Young Turk Movement o Constitution of 1876 reinstated – Sultan losing control to the Ottoman Debt Commission o Elections 1908 – Revolt by angry military officers o Committee for Union and Progress – Won first elections (civil servants/Young Turks)  New reforms limit Sultans power - Establishment of educational institutions in the Middle Easy by Missionaries - British intrigues in the Middle East during WWI Sept 20, 2012 – Particularistic Nationalism o Ottoman empire splits into, Arab, Turkish, Jordanian, etc. nationalism – When the young turks come to power they believe the way forward is through strengthening the Turkish community – Arab nationalism rises in strength as the fall of the ottoman empire continues – British and French Intrigues o Hussein (Prince of Hejaz)-McMahon Correspondence (1915)  Arab Revolt (1916) – Sends son Faysal to lead attacks on ottoman supplies  Fights to Damascus and establishes a new government  Mecca – Most holy site in Islam o Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916)  Letters between France and Britain on how to divide up the Middle East but leaves the Arabs out of the division o Balfour Declaration (1917)  Promises a national Homeland for Jews in Palestine and promises to protect the rights of Jews in Palestine and the rights of non-Jews o Impossible for all agreements to be upheld – British trying to cover every scenario o San Remo Conference  Treaty of Sevres (1920)  Closest to Sykes-Picot Agreement o Four Mandates:  Foreign powers in charge are to help to develop the political institutions and prepare them for self sustaining states 1. Greater Syria (Present day Syria and Lebanon) under French Mandate 2. Iraq under King Faysal; British Mandate 3. Jordan under King Abdullah (brother of Faysal, Son of Hussein); British Mandate 4. Palestine under British Mandate  No Arab state o Boundaries divided and segregated many groups that had never lived together and separated those who had previously lived together o Debates of Arab Nationalism come forth – Should be one Arab State o Constitutional Monarchy – Iraq only lasts ~9 years  Jordan still follows o Foreign presence in every region, in charge of the mandates/politics/economy o Even Local leadership is foreign (Faysal, Abdullah) – Five Reasons for the Popularization and Spread of Arab Nationalism after WWI o Break-up of the Ottoman Empire and the creation of new states o Struggle for political and economic independence from the Europeans o The ideological influence of the Salafi movement  The problem is that to many religious clerics are conservative  Claim Islam can be reinterpreted to represent the political economic and social circumstances of the day  Muslim unity and the revival of Islam is the way to keep Europeans away, Islamic solidarity Sept 25, 2012 – 5 phases of Arab-Israeli Crisis o 1920 (1923) - May 1948  State of Israel created  Mandate of Britain over Palestine was to respect the homes of the Palestinians while allowing the immigration of Euro Jews  End of mandate the British wash their hands of the situation o 1948 – 1967 (June)  6 Day War – Israel acquired West Bank/Gaza  Start to see the rise of messianic Zionism  Jewish political group that argues that the lands won were part of Gods plan and shouldn’t be given back o 1967 - 1987  First Intifada (uprising) by Palestinians  Shift away from Egypt and other Middle East countries from fighting Palestinian wars to Palestinians themselves o 1987 - 2006  Hamas takes over Gaza via elections  Pushing out the dominant group PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)  Creates the Palestine Authority o 2006 – Present  A Religious group wins majority over secular PLO – Documentary (Promises and Betrayal) o Suez Canal central to British interests o Britain focused on the fall of the Otto empire as central to ending WWI o Britain promised Constantinople to the Russians o Britain exploited nationalism to continue the decay of the Ottomans o By the start of WWI the Arabs and Turks were at an imposition o Britain and France started to seduce various Arab leaders to join their cause and in return would be given independence o Sharif Hussein of Hijaz wanted to expand his territory and agreed to raise a substantial Arab revolt in return for his own empire o Britain focused on the control of Iraq for its oil and other resources o After the new regime takes over in Russia, they release publications of the Sykes-Picot Agreement and the Balfour Agreement to the public embarrassing Britain and France  Enraged Arabs as the division of lands was not in their favour o British could never have legitimized their plans without the help of Arab support (Hussein) o Balfour agreement committed British support to Jews in Palestine which left a deep divide between Arabs and Jews in Palestine when the State of Israel was created Sept 27, 2012 1920 to 1948 – Arbitrary borders between middle east mandates – British were to prepare nations for independence in terms of security, education, and institutions – British attempts to create a unified gov. between Palestinians and Israelis – Palestinians o Approach Husyani to create a supreme Muslim council in which elites were selected by British authorities to govern this conflict  Notables were very out of touch with peasants  Palestinians were selling their lands to Zionists or having it taken from them o Palestinians frustrated with foreigners taking land from them o British flip flopping on policy in response to whatever side is angry o Palestinians are increasing in violent rebellion which culminates into violence in 1939 “White Paper” a report which declares that its not part of British policy that Palestine become a Jewish state – Zionists o Set up elections through the Jewish Agency which are there to represent the Jews in Palestine  Main party is the Mapai (Labour) Party  David Ben Gurion becomes first Prime Minister  Establishes first military (Haganah) and institutions  A government waiting for a state o 1939 “White Paper”  Severes the relationship between the Zionists and British  However still better to work with the British than against  Two militant groups (Irgun/Stern Gang) decide to use violence against the British – attacking British outposts, bombings  After WWI Jewish Agency tries to bring all militant groups under one umbrella and attack the British  1947 British leave and leave the UN to find a solution  Creates a special committee on Palestine which proposes a two state solution with Jerusalem being an international city  The Zionists were in agreement, however the Palestinians were against it as they saw it as outsiders taking their land  Plan goes to a vote to the UN General Assembly and passes giving both their own states o British mandate ends 1948  Area breaks out into civil war with the inclusion of Transjordan, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon  Israel at the end of war was larger than the UN sanctioned area  Over 70,000 Palestinians flee to Jordan during the war  Zionist forces overpowered the Arab forces and are highly motivated after the holocaust of WWII  Israelis were far more equipped and had support from Europe o West Bank  The Palestinians ended up under Jordanian rule as they controlled the West Bank (West Bank of Jordan River)  Bulk of P. live on West Bank and refugees go to Jordan and use Jordan as a base to reestablish for future wars  Extremely important to King Abdullah to control Jerusalem for his family lineage May 1948 – June 1967 – Israel establishes a secular state with Jewish laws regulating personal issues o Israel absorbs Jews of the world - establish Hebrew as national lang.  Orthodox Jews
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