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Final

HIST 1150 Final Review 2 McDougall

16 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 1150
Professor
Troy Riddell

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HISTFinalReviewWeek6EuropesOverseasEmpireBefore1945TheImpactoftheFirstWorldWarththpeakofcolonialisminEuropewaslate19andearly20centuriesseeninscrambleforAfricaWWIkeyturningpointforliberationforcolonialgovernmentNationsreliedheavilyoncoloniesmenandsuppliesduringWWIgavelittleinreturnattheendofthewarin1919BritishandFranceempiresareatpeakofownedcoloniesbecausetheyacquiredterritoriesfromlosershowevercolonialnationssufferedhugelossesinWWIandwantedanationalidentityoftheirownInterwarPeriodBritishwhitedominionsachievedlotsofautonomygivenfreeandequalassociationalstatusamongBritaincreateownpoliciesOtherpartsoftheBritishempirewerenotgivenasmuchautonomyinvokedresponsesinplacessuchasIndiaGandhiIranaswellIndependencemovementemerginginplacessuchasAlgeriaSyriain1920sBothBritishandFrenchempiresatpeakofgeographicscopeafterWWIbutmovementswerebeingmadetowardsautonomyImpactofWW2seriouslyunderminedtheprestigeandpowerofEuropesmilitaryforcesMostnotablyFrancetheyweredefeatedswiftlyandeasilyJapanesemilitarytookcontrolofBritisheasterncoloniessuchasIndiaChinaandBurmaThesenationsdidnotwanttogobacktobeingaDutchBritishFrenchterritoryseesthereductionofEuropesmilitarystatusafter1945WW2iscrucialindestroyingEuropeanmilitarypoweroverseashighlightedthelittleattentionthatEuropeanpowerspaidtotheircoloniesExIndiawasbroughtintothewarwithoutconsultationofindigenouspeopleswhichfacedprotestFrancescoloniesinAfricausedastestinggroundsformilitarydisputesnotforwhatthepeoplewantedpowershiftsfromEuropetoUSAopenstheColdWarbecauseUSAandRussiacharacterizethemselvesasanticolonialHowdiddecolonizationhappenTheProcessBritainFranceBelgiumPortugalNetherlandsallownedcoloniesoverseasanddidnotwanttogiveuptheircoloniesforanyreasonWasawayofshowingthatcountriescouldbeindependentafterbeingoccupiedbyNazisstillsomeeconomicreasonsaswellforBritainandNetherlandsinsomeplacesdecolonizationisachievedrapidlyseeninmiddleeast1946JordanSyriaLebanongrantedindependenceControversially1947BritainleftIndiabutleftbehindapartitionstate1948BritainterminateditsmandateinPalestineandledthewaytocreationofIsraelOtherpartsoftheworlddecolonizationtakemuchlongerAfricatakesuntil1950sfirstwasGhanain1957Portugalwasignoredduringtimesofdecolonizationandbecameindependentinthe1970sTherewasmuchviolenteventsduringdecolonizationNationalistInterpretationdecolonizationwastheproductofactivelypushingEuropeansoutofthecountrycharismaticwesterneducatedleaderswhichforcedEuropeanleadersoutoftheirclaimedterritorieshoweverdecolonizationactuallytookalongtimeusuallydidntalwayscomequicklywithnationalisticcountriesAlgeriaVietnamBritishoccupiedMalayaakaMalaysiaindigenouspeopleswereoftenverydividedoverwhyandhowtogetridofdivisionoffightingwithorwithoutviolenceethicaldividefightingadoptedbyFLNinAlgeriaendedupkillingmoreAlgeriansandKenyansthanoccupierspoliticaldividebetweencommunismandanticommunismnationalandreligiousdivisionsPalestineIndiaalsochangingweretheopinionsofpeoplewhohadpreviouslybeenhappytoworkwithcolonialforcesInternationalInterpretationsriseofUSAandSovietsdeclineofEuropeandtheiroverseasempiresafter1945thegeneralinternationalpowershiftedwartimeexperiencesandoccupationsUNtriedtohelpcountriesseekingfreedomfromcolonialpowers1960UNdeclareddecolonizationtobeagainstUNcharterofhumanrightsbutdidntmeanitwasSovietsandStatesconsideredthemselvestobeanticolonialRooseveltsimageandhisangerattheFrenchforwantingtokeeptheirempiresafterWW2Suezcrisisof1956bigmomentBritishFrenchandIsraeliforcestrytogetcontrolofSuezCanalfromEgyptandgettheirpowerbacklaststandofEuropeanforcedtowithdrawtroopsfromStatesandBritishprimeministertostepdownsuperduperhumiliatinghugelossofprestigeespeciallyintheMiddleEastillustratesthepowershiftfromoldworldordertonewworldorderPortugalclingsontotheircoloniesinto1970sbutwithdemocracyin1974theygetridofthemMetropolitanInterpretationsEuropeanshadadecliningwilltorulerelatedtothecostofrunningcoloniesafterWW2shiftinprioritizationofEuropeaneconomiesmoredomesticfocusedshiftinpublicopinionpeoplearemoreindifferenttocolonieslossofprestigecolonieswerenolongerworththetroublethepointofhistorywheretheygetthewelfarestateuniversalhealthcareetcveryexpensiveprojectsdignifiedcivilizedretreatselfjustificationnotrealityPiedsNoirsinAlgeriathebasicreasonwhytheFrenchwereunwillingtogiveupAlgeriaDutchonlygaveupIndonesiabecauseofAmericanpressureandtheMarshallPlanWeek7CaseStudiesofDecolonizationDecolonizationinAfricabeginslateandproceedsrapidlyFrancegranted1956TunisiaandGoldCoastGhanaisfirstin1957grantedindependencewholestringofdeclarationsofindependenceafterthisfromBritishandFrancecolonieswindsofchangespeechBritishandFrenchrecognitionthatdecolonizationhadtotakeplace
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