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HIST 1250
Tara Abraham

The Encyclopdie - The most ambitious project of the Enlightenment was Denis Diderots Encyclopdie. First published in 1751. The Encyclopedie was the most current information on every subject of modern thought. Many of the articles contained the latest understanding of science, technology and philosophy. Diderot believed that by making this knowledge available, the whole of civil society could be transformed. It also suggested order in nature and order in the study of nature. ( PAGE 168) Madame Geoffrin – In Britian, the locales(places) of scientific discourse(discussions) were salons, gathering places for the growing urban middle classes. This new audience was fascinated by the information natural philosophers provided. One of the leading salons of the period was presided by Madame Geoffrin. The salons were often created by influential members of society and brought together artists, writers, musicians, and philosophers. The “salon” was a meeting place. (PAGE 171) Tokugawa shogunate - could not find anything in the book Deshima – could not find anything in the book Joseph Banks (1743-1820) – president of the Royal Society. Joseph Banks became the greatest botanical collector in Europe. Established Kew Gardens, not only collecting specimens but growing them and distributing them to other gardens. Most of the oriental flowering plants that are now an integral part of European horticulture -Rhododendrons came from Banks collection. (PAGE 185) Hans Sloane, a doctor (1660-1753)—famous for discovering chocolate and the art of preservation/embalming. He collected Old and New World plants and then branched out to collect shells, insects, fossils, minerals, antiquities, coins etc. Sloane traveled with the Duke ofAlbermarle to Jamaica in 1687. When the Duke died unexpectedly during the trip – Hans Sloane practiced his preservation technique and embalmed the Dukes body. Sloane also made a fortune importing and manufacturing milk chocolate from SouthAmerica. (PAGE 183) Alexander von Humboldt – (1769-1859) He combined exact measurement of flora and fauna using precise instruments with intensive fieldwork and an overall concept of the interconnectedness of all living things. He was instrumental in engendering a strong reliance on fieldwork among biologists and in creating a proto-ecological understanding of the living world. Carl Linnaeus paved the way for classification of humans as thinking mammals. He claimed that there were four races of humans: Europeans,Asians andAfricans,Americans. Friedrich Blumenback (1752-1840) developed a model of relations among the four races. He believed that all people were of one species, but there was a hierarchy of perfection among the races. He added a fifth race, the Malays. This categorization seem to indicate that races below the Caucasians were closer to animals. Racial theorists soon took this pyramid as an excuse and opportunity for exploitation. Saartje Baartman – a native of southAfrica,, a slave who was exploited at “freak” shows for her unique anatomical feature. She was dissected by a French surgeon after her death. Charles Townsend – nothing in book Jethro Tull – nothing in book James Hargreaves – nothing in book James Watt – (1730-1819) inventor, instrument maker. Condensing, double action and rotary steam engine. Alexander von Humboldt – a member of the Societe d’Arcuei. Ecole Polytechique – the leading scientific and engineering school of the era. Transformed into a military school. The artillery the most intellectual branch of the military requiring a broad understanding of mathematics, physics, chemistry. Gaspard Monge – one of the three founders of the ecole polytechique. Whose work on descriptive geometry laid the foundation for architectural and engineering drawing. Charles Babbage –one of the constraints on calculators was the precision necessary to manufacture the component parts. Charles Babbage conceived the Difference Engine to calculate and print mathematical tables using polynomial functions, all without the necessity of human
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