HIST*1250 Finals Prep
Professor Tara Abraham
Length: 2 hours, 100 marks
Date: Thursday, December 12th, 2013
Time: 7:00pm - 9:00pm
Place: Athletic Centre (please bring photo ID)
Final Exam Format
Section 1: Identification. Identify and explain the significance for this course of 5 of the following
terms (5 marks each, 25 marks total).
Section 2: Short answer (2-3 paragraphs). Answer 2 of the following 3 questions. (20 marks
each = 40 marks).
Section 3: Essay. Answer 1 of the following 2 questions (35 marks).
Main problem with identification questions:
● Not enough detail.
● No explanation of significance in course, any reference to why discussed, why relevant to
● Caution against using Wikipedia.
● Point is to connect it, explain its significance.
● Placed in particular time period, not exact year, place roughly in an era. Maria
Term Time Period Description Significance
● “Hero of Modern Science”. ● Widely seen to be
● He was a Copernican. representing what
● 2 most famous works: was new about
○ Mathematical Principles of natural philosophy.
Natural Philosophy (1687) ● Seen as the
○ Opticks (1704) emblem of human
● Became president of the RSL enlightenment and
after publishing Opticks. progress.
Isaac 1642-1727 ● Believed mathematics was the
Newton (Scientific „language of nature‟.
Revolution) ● Came up with a set of laws that
were applicable anywhere
(Newton‟s 1st, 2nd, & 3rd Laws).
● Universal Law of Gravitation.
● 2 Practices Important to Newton:
○ Biblical Researches
● He was Arian:
○ Holy Trinity does not exist.
○ Used the Bible as a historical
● First volume published in 1751. ● Provided the most
● Final volumes published in 1772. current information
1751-1772 ● Author was Denis Diderot. on every subject of
The (The ● Co-editor was Jean d‟Alembert. modern thought to
● Reached 28 Volumes total. all educated
Enlightenment) ● Over 20,000 full sets sold. Europeans.
● Two themes:
○ Sovereignty over nature
● After her husband‟s death, she ● One of the leading
used her wealth and home to salons of the
bring together interesting and Enlightenment.
important people. ● New venue/ social
1699 - 1777
Madame (The ● Supported the Enc clop die both institution
financially and socially (friends (mimicked certain
Geoffrin Enlightenment) with Diderot and d‟Alembert). aspects of princely
● Entertained both Benjamin courts, but included
Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. people with a much
wider range of
backgrounds). ● Era that lasted for two centuries in ● Attempt to preserve
Japan. the traditions of
● Initially rejected Western science Japan and keep
and culture. away from Western
Tokugawa 17th - 19th ● Shogun - military leader/dictator influence.
appointed by the emperor but had
Shogunate Century much more direct power.
● They were obsessed with the
threat of Western dominance and
encouraged a culture of isolation.
● Only drawing in Western ideas for
their own purposes.
● Small, artificial island in Nagasak● Represents culture
Deshima Tokugawa harbour. of isolation in
Shogunate ● Only point of contact between the Japan.
West and Japan.
● Trade with the Dutch.
● New kind of scientist: Naturalist ● Demonstrated that
○ Naturalists study Natural scientific
History not Natural Philosophy. observation was
● Member of the RSL. important in the
● Became ship‟s botanist for study of science
Lieutenant James Cook‟s first and set an example
voyage to the pacific in 1768. that other
● Natural history involved: European nations
Joseph 1743 - 1820
○ Collecting soon began to
Banks (The ○ Displaying follow.
Enlightenment) ○ Identifying ● Science became
○ Naming strongly tied to
○ Classifying state activities.
● Became the greatest botanical
collector in Europe and the most
powerful natural philosopher in
● Expeditions became a new
scientific currency (they were
political and scientific).
● President of the RSL. ● After his death, he
● Physician to the wealthy in established a trust
London. that soon formed
1660 - 1753
Hans (The ● Had an enormous collection: the British Museum
○ Old and New world plants (became the
Sloane Enlightenment) ○ Antiquities largest public
○ Coins museum of the 18
○ Books, Manuscripts Century).
● His collection was visited by the
most important people of the day. ● Swedish botanist. ● Introduced the
● One of the most successful classification
systematizers in the 18 Century. system - a way to
● Developed a classification system classify species.
based on increasing specificity
(Kingdom, Class, Order, Genus,
1707 - 1778 Species, Variety).
Carl (The ● To classify plants he used
Linnaeus Enlightenment) artificial classification.
● Saw the natural world as a
balanced, continuous, &
unchanging system created by
● Believed that classifying
organisms revealed God‟s divine
plan and that God was revealed
in the natural world.
● Khoi Native of South Africa. ● Races below
● Taken to Britain in 1810 to be Caucasians were
displayed in a side-show as viewed as closer to
“Hottentot Venus”. animals (hierarchy
Saartjie 1810 ● She was exploited both in Britain of development).
and in France. ● 19 Century racial
(Sarah) (Industrial ● Treated as a scientific specimen - theorists took this
Baartman Revolution) not as a human being. pyramid as an
● The Abolition Society enforced excuse and
her release. opportunity for
● She had to support herself exploitation.
through prostitution and died at
the age of 26.
● Furthered Linnaeus‟ ● Led to the
categorizations by developing a exploitation of
model of relations among the four Sarah Baartman.
races of people (Europeans,
Asians, Africans, and the
Johann 1752 - 1840 Americans).
● Believed there was a hierarchy of
Blumenbach Revolution) perfection among the races.
● Added a fifth race - the Malays.
● He did not intend for his
categorization to imply that races
below Caucasians were closer to
● Introduced “four-field crop ● Introduced new
Charles 1674 - 1738 rotation”. farming techniques.
Enlightenment) ● Invented the seed drill (workers ● Introduced
did not like the idea because they scientific approach
Jethro 1674 - 1741
Tull (The thought they would lose their to agriculture.
Enlightenment) ● Invented the horse-drawn hoe for
● X-ray crystallographer. ● Discovered two
● Believed science can benefit forms of DNA.
humankind (her drive). ● Photograph 51 -
● Enjoyed working in the laboratory revealed DNA‟s
and experimenting (loved the double helical
experimental process more than structure.
others). ● She was not taken
● Sharp minded; quick wit; seriously and not
persistent; determined; single treated fairly
minded. because she was a
● She was very careful, methodical, woman.
● Used X-ray crystallography to
Rosalind 1920 - 1958
Franklin (20th Century) analyze DNA.
● Maurice Wilkins treated her as a
technician rather than a
● James Watson and Francis Crick
tried to discover the structure of
DNA rather than work on their
● Wilkins showed Watson and Crick
one of Rosalind‟s cr stallographic
photographs of DNA and they
concluded that the structure must
be a double helix.
● They won the Nobel Prize for
Physiology based on the work of
Rosalind, not their own (They did
not acknowledge Rosalind at all).
● Rosalind died of cancer and
never had the chance to defend
● Soviets launched Sputnik I. ● The first time
● Means “Fellow Traveller”. something made by
● Orbited the earth at an altitude at human beings had
900 km and flashed across the left the earth.
Sputnik I (The Arms sky at 29, 000 km/h. ● What had been the
● Proclaimed the scientific and realm of fantasy
Race and technological superiority of the and science fiction
Space Race) Soviet Union. had become reality
and expanded the
potential zone of
Term Time Period Description Significance
● Invented the spinning jenny in ● Technology that
1765, which made the production brought a shift in
1720 - 1778 of yarn more efficient. productivity and
Hargreaves ● England could now produce transformed
Enlightenment) cotton at a faster rate - and more textiles forever.
efficiently - than the cotton from
● Improved on Newcomen‟s steam ● The collaboration
engine. of Watt with
● Collaborated with Birmingham Roebuck and
James Watt 1736-1819 manufacturer Matthew Boulton, Boulton were
(The and foundries owner John instrumental in the
Wilkinson. development of the
Enlightenment) steam engine that
● Forbidden to work in factories ● Significant
when under the age of 9. because it was
● Between the age of 9 and 13, one example of the
children could work a max of 9 social effects of
1833 hours per day. industrialization.
Factory Act ● Two hours of education per day
(Age of for each child.
Reform) ● Max of 48 work hours per week.
● Increased sanitary conditions of
● Provided inspectors that would
● Responsible for the “Report on ● Chadwick‟s
the Sanitary Condition of the
Labouring population of Great reforms had
impact on other
Britain” (1842). cities. These other
Edwin 1800 - 1890 ● Concluded that the key to a better
Chadwick (Age of city was to have the water supply cities saw what
and waste supply under control; was happening in
Reform) less apt for contaminated drinking Britain and made
their own reforms. Alexander 1769 - 1859 ● Prussian geographer, naturalist, ● Laid the foundation
and explorer. for the field of
von (The ● Member of the Societe d‟Arcueil. biogeography,
Humboldt Enlightenment) through his work on
● The most prominent of the ● As a state
catastrophists. employee, through
● A professor of anatomy at the his position and
1769-1832 newly created National museum work he
Cuvier of Natural History in Paris. demonstrated the
Enlightenment) ● Instrumental in establishing the prominence of
fields of paleontology & France in imperial
comparative anatomy. competition, even
● Science and the state in Post- ● Demonstrated the
Revolutionary France difference between
the status of
● Transformed into the leading
Established in scientific and engineering school science in Britain
Polytechnique 1794 of the era
● Within France, could be employed
by state to do research and
teaching, while in Britain this
wasn‟t the case.
● French mathematician and ● His work on
● Inventor of descriptive geometry. geometry laid the
Gaspard 1746-1818 ● One of the founders of the cole foundation for
Monge Enlightenment) Polytechnique . architectural and
● Born into a wealthy family. ● Originated the
● Known for his mathematical work. concept of a
● Invented the Difference Engine,
which was a mechanical device computer.
for calculating. ● “Father of the
Charles 1791-1871 ● In 1830, he wrote Reflexions on
Babbage (The the Decline of Science in England.
Enlightenment) ● He attacked the leadership of the
Royal Society, and the laissez-
faire (meaning hands-off) attitude
● Argued for properly paid and
funded researchers. ● Created in response to the ● Prime example of
perceived decline in science shifting
British occurring in Great Britain. relationship
Association ● Its aim: science more democratic, between science
Founded in more open, more progressive. and state.
Advancement 1831 ● Avoided London on purpose to
of Science not be overshadowed by RSL.
● Provided forum.
● Men of means
● Unlike royal society, wanted to
draw in state support.
● Mingling of industrial vision of ● Stimulated state
science, but also natural artifacts support, and public
from all areas of the British
● London‟s H de Park.
● Symbol of power of empire.
International 1851 ● 100,000 different specimens in
Exhibition many different exhibits.
● Like a giant greenhouse.
● Latest in science in technology.
● Product of industry that drove the
● Attracted 6 million visitors.
● Appetite of science and
technology on behalf of the public.
● Wrote the Double Helix. ● His actions paired
James ● Earned his Phd at the age of 22, with James
1928 - present had done work as a phage Watson‟s made
Watson geneticist. science look like it
was unethical, and
● Worked with James Watson to that “an thing
create a model of DNA. goes”. Juanita
Term Time Period Description Significance
● He was an English uniformitarian. ● His contributions
● Member and eventually president changed the way
of the Geological Society of geologists and
● Winner of the Royal Medal. studied the Earth.
● He focused on scientific geology. ● Lyell was widely
● He based his ideas on uniformity influential because
and said that forces in operation of his methodology
had no change from the past to of comparing the
the present. events of the past
● He also focused on actualism and with the events of
Lyell (Industrial empiricism by observing causes of the present.
Revolution) events instead of trusting
● Lyell had a steady state approach
to explain the cyclical changes of
earth over long periods of time
and which have been of the same
● He said that events occurred in a
gradual and slow manner, instead
of changing in drastic way.
● Wrote the Principles of Geology
● Theory exposed by Charles Lyell. ● It was a theory that
● Theory that relied on the idea of gave scientists
geological formation created by some
gradual change. understanding of
● No difference between forces from nature and
the past in comparison with the eventually lead to
ones from the present. the autonomy of
● Theory that was consistent and science from
Uniformitaria First formulated lead scientists to understand philosophy and
nism in the late 18th nature through observations in the religion. On the
century present. other side,
● Uniformitarianism says that scientists argued
gradual cumulative geological his idea of no
changes could be the cause of evolution of the
extinction and the progress of species.
species. ● French scientist that published ● Lamarck‟s theor
Philosophie Zoologique (1809). induced to the
● He invented the Lamarckianism thinking about
(an evolutionary theory). evolution in the 19
● Lamarck denied the possibility of Century, and was
extinction, and arguing instead influential for next
that one species evolved into works in the field.
● Believed that environment was
very influential on the
development of species.
● Plants and animals evolve
Jean Baptiste 1744-1829 physically to adapt to new
de Lamarck (Industrial conditions.
● He called the inheritance of
Revolution) acquired characteristics to the
changes of one generation which
could be inherited by the next.
● He called Great Chain of being the
process of an individual to start at
the most primitive and eventually
species are the result of different
● Lamarck said that the use of some
organs will increase the size or
ability of the organism, whereas
disuse would cause it to shrink or
● His theory was similar to that of
● Charles Darwin and Francis ● Demonstrate the
Galton‟s grandfather. prevalence of
● Member of the Lunar Society and evolutionary
Robert Chambers. thinking and his
● Exposed biological evolution works were a base
theories in the early nineteenth for Charles
century. Darwin‟s theor .
Erasmus 1731-1802 ● Erasmus‟ ideas were published in
Darwin (Industrial the poem Zoonomia (1794-1796),
Revolution) where he classified facts about
animals to established laws about
organic life and catalog diseases
with their treatment. ● Defined natural theology. ● His beliefs on a
● Wrote Natural Theology: Or God creator
Evidences of the Existence and influence various
Attributes of the Deity Collected aspects of science
from the Appearances of Nature to prove God‟s
(1802). existence and a
● He believed in the argument of divine plan.
design, which said that there was ● Darwin read his
1743-1805 a Great maker for everything. books and
William Paley (Industrial ● Paley studied the natural world to concluded that
to glorify God. evolution was a
● He argued that God was a divine process that could
craftsmen. connect adaptation
● Animals have structure and and design, but he
function because they were did not accept the
designed for that purpose by our idea of a
benevolent creator. benevolent
● Author of influential works on designer.
Christianity, ethics, and science,
and focused on the argument for
the existence of God.
● Doctrine exposed by William ● Natural theology
Paley. oriented to the
● God was thought to be the belief of a
Creator. benevolent Creator
● Plants and animals were created resulted on the
by God with a specific purpose. connection of
● This theory was created to prove science to the
God's existence and define God's question of how life
Theology Revolution attributes. works, meaning
wanted to seek for
the function or
purpose of their
as God‟s designs.
● Wrote the essay of The Principle ● His ideas
of Population as it Affects the influenced the
Future Improvement of Society Social and political
(1797). attitudes at that
Thomas 1766 - 1834 ● Argued that population grows time
geometrically and food supply and ● His theory about
Malthus (Industrial resources only increase population
Revolution) arithmetically. eventually lead
Darwin to base
natural selection on
the idea that only
could survive. ● Charles Darwin‟s Theor which ● This theory was the
exposed that variation in main base of
appearance or behaviour existed evolution during the
in a population of individuals and nineteenth century.
certain variations were ● Eventually natural
advantageous in particular selection was
environments. applied on human
● Some variations gave individuals behaviours and
1842-1844 more chance to survive than their possibilities to
Natural (Industrial others. survive according
● Emphasizes that good traits could to mental abilities
be preserved and passed on from and behaviours.
parent to offspring. For example, the
● Most populations have more struggle of
offspring than the resources competition for
available leading to a struggle for resources between
them. capitalism and
● Adaptation is the process through imperialism.
which individuals evolve traits into
more suited and therefore could
leave more offspring.
● He was a paid collector. ● His contributions
● Co-creator of natural selection. were not as
● Wallace developed a similar recognized as
theory of evolution to Darwin‟s Darwin‟s.
Natural selection. ● Focused on
● Wallace rejected Darwin‟s idea spiritualism to
that humans evolved the same change the idea of
way as animals did. competition as the
● He accepted that his theory was violent behaviour of
1823-1913 not as complete as Darwin‟s people to achieve
Alfred Russel (Industrial theory and eventually he power, economic
published a complete book called success and social
Darwinism (1889). status, and instead
● At the end of his life, he focused to prove the
on the study of spiritualism and existence of a
the divinity that separated peaceful soul on
humankind from the bad side of humans.
humans. ● English sociologist and ● He explained the
philosopher. social phenomena
● He published Principles of in a scientific way.
Psychology (1890). ● In the context of
● Introduced the phrase “survival of progress and
the fittest”. industrialization,
1820-1903 ● Believed that position in society social classes were
was determined by characteristics created and
Herbert (Industrial and abilities. competition for
Spencer Revolution) ● He was the first who talked about good jobs, living
evolution. conditions and
● Spencer was influenced by quality of life in the
Malthus and saw that only the cities increased
strongest tended to survive in life. therefore only the
individual who were
strong enough and