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HIST*1250 Final Exam Review Terms

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HIST 1250
Tara Abraham

HIST*1250 Finals Prep Professor Tara Abraham Information Length: 2 hours, 100 marks Date: Thursday, December 12th, 2013 Time: 7:00pm - 9:00pm Place: Athletic Centre (please bring photo ID) Final Exam Format Section 1: Identification. Identify and explain the significance for this course of 5 of the following terms (5 marks each, 25 marks total). Section 2: Short answer (2-3 paragraphs). Answer 2 of the following 3 questions. (20 marks each = 40 marks). Section 3: Essay. Answer 1 of the following 2 questions (35 marks). Main problem with identification questions: ● Not enough detail. ● No explanation of significance in course, any reference to why discussed, why relevant to trajectory. ● Caution against using Wikipedia. ● Point is to connect it, explain its significance. ● Placed in particular time period, not exact year, place roughly in an era. Maria Term Time Period Description Significance ● “Hero of Modern Science”. ● Widely seen to be ● He was a Copernican. representing what ● 2 most famous works: was new about ○ Mathematical Principles of natural philosophy. Natural Philosophy (1687) ● Seen as the ○ Opticks (1704) emblem of human ● Became president of the RSL enlightenment and after publishing Opticks. progress. Isaac 1642-1727 ● Believed mathematics was the Newton (Scientific „language of nature‟. Revolution) ● Came up with a set of laws that were applicable anywhere (Newton‟s 1st, 2nd, & 3rd Laws). ● Universal Law of Gravitation. ● 2 Practices Important to Newton: ○ Biblical Researches ○ Alchemy ● He was Arian: ○ Holy Trinity does not exist. ○ Used the Bible as a historical text. ● First volume published in 1751. ● Provided the most ● Final volumes published in 1772. current information 1751-1772 ● Author was Denis Diderot. on every subject of The (The ● Co-editor was Jean d‟Alembert. modern thought to ● Reached 28 Volumes total. all educated Enlightenment) ● Over 20,000 full sets sold. Europeans. ● Two themes: ○ Sovereignty over nature ○ Progress ● After her husband‟s death, she ● One of the leading used her wealth and home to salons of the bring together interesting and Enlightenment. important people. ● New venue/ social 1699 - 1777 Madame (The ● Supported the Enc clop die both institution financially and socially (friends (mimicked certain Geoffrin Enlightenment) with Diderot and d‟Alembert). aspects of princely ● Entertained both Benjamin courts, but included Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. people with a much wider range of backgrounds). ● Era that lasted for two centuries in ● Attempt to preserve Japan. the traditions of ● Initially rejected Western science Japan and keep and culture. away from Western Tokugawa 17th - 19th ● Shogun - military leader/dictator influence. appointed by the emperor but had Shogunate Century much more direct power. ● They were obsessed with the threat of Western dominance and encouraged a culture of isolation. ● Only drawing in Western ideas for their own purposes. ● Small, artificial island in Nagasak● Represents culture Deshima Tokugawa harbour. of isolation in Shogunate ● Only point of contact between the Japan. West and Japan. ● Trade with the Dutch. ● New kind of scientist: Naturalist ● Demonstrated that ○ Naturalists study Natural scientific History not Natural Philosophy. observation was ● Member of the RSL. important in the ● Became ship‟s botanist for study of science Lieutenant James Cook‟s first and set an example voyage to the pacific in 1768. that other ● Natural history involved: European nations Joseph 1743 - 1820 ○ Collecting soon began to Banks (The ○ Displaying follow. Enlightenment) ○ Identifying ● Science became ○ Naming strongly tied to ○ Classifying state activities. ● Became the greatest botanical collector in Europe and the most powerful natural philosopher in Britain. ● Expeditions became a new scientific currency (they were political and scientific). ● President of the RSL. ● After his death, he ● Physician to the wealthy in established a trust London. that soon formed 1660 - 1753 Hans (The ● Had an enormous collection: the British Museum ○ Old and New world plants (became the Sloane Enlightenment) ○ Antiquities largest public ○ Coins museum of the 18 ○ Books, Manuscripts Century). ● His collection was visited by the most important people of the day. ● Swedish botanist. ● Introduced the ● One of the most successful classification systematizers in the 18 Century. system - a way to ● Developed a classification system classify species. based on increasing specificity (Kingdom, Class, Order, Genus, 1707 - 1778 Species, Variety). Carl (The ● To classify plants he used Linnaeus Enlightenment) artificial classification. ● Saw the natural world as a balanced, continuous, & unchanging system created by God. ● Believed that classifying organisms revealed God‟s divine plan and that God was revealed in the natural world. ● Khoi Native of South Africa. ● Races below ● Taken to Britain in 1810 to be Caucasians were displayed in a side-show as viewed as closer to “Hottentot Venus”. animals (hierarchy Saartjie 1810 ● She was exploited both in Britain of development). and in France. ● 19 Century racial (Sarah) (Industrial ● Treated as a scientific specimen - theorists took this Baartman Revolution) not as a human being. pyramid as an ● The Abolition Society enforced excuse and her release. opportunity for ● She had to support herself exploitation. through prostitution and died at the age of 26. ● Furthered Linnaeus‟ ● Led to the categorizations by developing a exploitation of model of relations among the four Sarah Baartman. races of people (Europeans, Asians, Africans, and the Johann 1752 - 1840 Americans). Friedrich (Industrial ● Believed there was a hierarchy of Blumenbach Revolution) perfection among the races. ● Added a fifth race - the Malays. ● He did not intend for his categorization to imply that races below Caucasians were closer to animals. ● Introduced “four-field crop ● Introduced new Charles 1674 - 1738 rotation”. farming techniques. Townsend (The Enlightenment) ● Invented the seed drill (workers ● Introduced did not like the idea because they scientific approach Jethro 1674 - 1741 Tull (The thought they would lose their to agriculture. jobs). Enlightenment) ● Invented the horse-drawn hoe for clearing weeds. ● X-ray crystallographer. ● Discovered two ● Believed science can benefit forms of DNA. humankind (her drive). ● Photograph 51 - ● Enjoyed working in the laboratory revealed DNA‟s and experimenting (loved the double helical experimental process more than structure. others). ● She was not taken ● Sharp minded; quick wit; seriously and not persistent; determined; single treated fairly minded. because she was a ● She was very careful, methodical, woman. and precise. ● Used X-ray crystallography to Rosalind 1920 - 1958 Franklin (20th Century) analyze DNA. ● Maurice Wilkins treated her as a technician rather than a colleague. ● James Watson and Francis Crick tried to discover the structure of DNA rather than work on their own projects. ● Wilkins showed Watson and Crick one of Rosalind‟s cr stallographic photographs of DNA and they concluded that the structure must be a double helix. ● They won the Nobel Prize for Physiology based on the work of Rosalind, not their own (They did not acknowledge Rosalind at all). ● Rosalind died of cancer and never had the chance to defend herself. ● Soviets launched Sputnik I. ● The first time ● Means “Fellow Traveller”. something made by ● Orbited the earth at an altitude at human beings had 900 km and flashed across the left the earth. 1957 Sputnik I (The Arms sky at 29, 000 km/h. ● What had been the ● Proclaimed the scientific and realm of fantasy Race and technological superiority of the and science fiction Space Race) Soviet Union. had become reality and expanded the potential zone of human activity enormously. Richard Term Time Period Description Significance ● Invented the spinning jenny in ● Technology that 1765, which made the production brought a shift in 1720 - 1778 of yarn more efficient. productivity and James (The Hargreaves ● England could now produce transformed Enlightenment) cotton at a faster rate - and more textiles forever. efficiently - than the cotton from India. ● Improved on Newcomen‟s steam ● The collaboration engine. of Watt with ● Collaborated with Birmingham Roebuck and James Watt 1736-1819 manufacturer Matthew Boulton, Boulton were (The and foundries owner John instrumental in the Wilkinson. development of the Enlightenment) steam engine that literally powered the industrial revolution. ● Forbidden to work in factories ● Significant when under the age of 9. because it was ● Between the age of 9 and 13, one example of the children could work a max of 9 social effects of 1833 hours per day. industrialization. Factory Act ● Two hours of education per day (Age of for each child. Reform) ● Max of 48 work hours per week. ● Increased sanitary conditions of the factory. ● Provided inspectors that would check factories. ● Responsible for the “Report on ● Chadwick‟s the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring population of Great reforms had impact on other Britain” (1842). cities. These other Edwin 1800 - 1890 ● Concluded that the key to a better Chadwick (Age of city was to have the water supply cities saw what and waste supply under control; was happening in Reform) less apt for contaminated drinking Britain and made water. their own reforms. Alexander 1769 - 1859 ● Prussian geographer, naturalist, ● Laid the foundation and explorer. for the field of von (The ● Member of the Societe d‟Arcueil. biogeography, Humboldt Enlightenment) through his work on botanical geography. ● The most prominent of the ● As a state catastrophists. employee, through ● A professor of anatomy at the his position and 1769-1832 newly created National museum work he Georges (The Cuvier of Natural History in Paris. demonstrated the Enlightenment) ● Instrumental in establishing the prominence of fields of paleontology & France in imperial comparative anatomy. competition, even after Napoleon was defeated. ● Science and the state in Post- ● Demonstrated the Revolutionary France difference between the status of ● Transformed into the leading Established in scientific and engineering school science in Britain vs France. Polytechnique 1794 of the era ● Within France, could be employed by state to do research and teaching, while in Britain this wasn‟t the case. ● French mathematician and ● His work on physicist. descriptive ● Inventor of descriptive geometry. geometry laid the Gaspard 1746-1818 ● One of the founders of the cole foundation for (The Monge Enlightenment) Polytechnique . architectural and engineering drawing. ● Born into a wealthy family. ● Originated the ● Known for his mathematical work. concept of a programmable ● Invented the Difference Engine, which was a mechanical device computer. for calculating. ● “Father of the computer”. Charles 1791-1871 ● In 1830, he wrote Reflexions on Babbage (The the Decline of Science in England. Enlightenment) ● He attacked the leadership of the Royal Society, and the laissez- faire (meaning hands-off) attitude towards science. ● Argued for properly paid and funded researchers. ● Created in response to the ● Prime example of perceived decline in science shifting British occurring in Great Britain. relationship Association ● Its aim: science more democratic, between science Founded in more open, more progressive. and state. for the Advancement 1831 ● Avoided London on purpose to of Science not be overshadowed by RSL. ● Provided forum. ● Men of means ● Unlike royal society, wanted to draw in state support. ● Mingling of industrial vision of ● Stimulated state science, but also natural artifacts support, and public appetite. from all areas of the British Empire. ● London‟s H de Park. Great ● Symbol of power of empire. International 1851 ● 100,000 different specimens in Exhibition many different exhibits. ● Like a giant greenhouse. ● Latest in science in technology. ● Product of industry that drove the scientific revolution. ● Attracted 6 million visitors. ● Appetite of science and technology on behalf of the public. ● Wrote the Double Helix. ● His actions paired James ● Earned his Phd at the age of 22, with James 1928 - present had done work as a phage Watson‟s made Watson geneticist. science look like it was unethical, and ● Worked with James Watson to that “an thing create a model of DNA. goes”. Juanita Term Time Period Description Significance ● He was an English uniformitarian. ● His contributions ● Member and eventually president changed the way of the Geological Society of geologists and London. geophysicists ● Winner of the Royal Medal. studied the Earth. ● He focused on scientific geology. ● Lyell was widely ● He based his ideas on uniformity influential because and said that forces in operation of his methodology had no change from the past to of comparing the the present. events of the past ● He also focused on actualism and with the events of Charles 1797-1875 Lyell (Industrial empiricism by observing causes of the present. Revolution) events instead of trusting speculations. ● Lyell had a steady state approach to explain the cyclical changes of earth over long periods of time and which have been of the same intensity. ● He said that events occurred in a gradual and slow manner, instead of changing in drastic way. ● Wrote the Principles of Geology (1830-1833). ● Theory exposed by Charles Lyell. ● It was a theory that ● Theory that relied on the idea of gave scientists geological formation created by some gradual change. understanding of ● No difference between forces from nature and the past in comparison with the eventually lead to ones from the present. the autonomy of ● Theory that was consistent and science from Uniformitaria First formulated lead scientists to understand philosophy and nism in the late 18th nature through observations in the religion. On the century present. other side, ● Uniformitarianism says that scientists argued gradual cumulative geological his idea of no changes could be the cause of evolution of the extinction and the progress of species. species. ● French scientist that published ● Lamarck‟s theor Philosophie Zoologique (1809). induced to the ● He invented the Lamarckianism thinking about (an evolutionary theory). evolution in the 19 ● Lamarck denied the possibility of Century, and was extinction, and arguing instead influential for next that one species evolved into works in the field. others. ● Believed that environment was very influential on the development of species. ● Plants and animals evolve Jean Baptiste 1744-1829 physically to adapt to new de Lamarck (Industrial conditions. ● He called the inheritance of Revolution) acquired characteristics to the changes of one generation which could be inherited by the next. ● He called Great Chain of being the process of an individual to start at the most primitive and eventually species are the result of different changes. ● Lamarck said that the use of some organs will increase the size or ability of the organism, whereas disuse would cause it to shrink or even disappear. ● His theory was similar to that of Darwin. ● Charles Darwin and Francis ● Demonstrate the Galton‟s grandfather. prevalence of ● Member of the Lunar Society and evolutionary Robert Chambers. thinking and his ● Exposed biological evolution works were a base theories in the early nineteenth for Charles century. Darwin‟s theor . Erasmus 1731-1802 ● Erasmus‟ ideas were published in Darwin (Industrial the poem Zoonomia (1794-1796), Revolution) where he classified facts about animals to established laws about organic life and catalog diseases with their treatment. ● Defined natural theology. ● His beliefs on a ● Wrote Natural Theology: Or God creator Evidences of the Existence and influence various Attributes of the Deity Collected aspects of science from the Appearances of Nature to prove God‟s (1802). existence and a ● He believed in the argument of divine plan. design, which said that there was ● Darwin read his 1743-1805 a Great maker for everything. books and William Paley (Industrial ● Paley studied the natural world to concluded that to glorify God. evolution was a Revolution) ● He argued that God was a divine process that could craftsmen. connect adaptation ● Animals have structure and and design, but he function because they were did not accept the designed for that purpose by our idea of a benevolent creator. benevolent ● Author of influential works on designer. Christianity, ethics, and science, and focused on the argument for the existence of God. ● Doctrine exposed by William ● Natural theology Paley. oriented to the ● God was thought to be the belief of a Creator. benevolent Creator ● Plants and animals were created resulted on the by God with a specific purpose. connection of ● This theory was created to prove science to the Natural Industrial God's existence and define God's question of how life Theology Revolution attributes. works, meaning that scientists wanted to seek for the function or purpose of their discoveries which were appreciated as God‟s designs. ● Wrote the essay of The Principle ● His ideas of Population as it Affects the influenced the Future Improvement of Society Social and political (1797). attitudes at that Thomas 1766 - 1834 ● Argued that population grows time geometrically and food supply and ● His theory about Malthus (Industrial resources only increase population Revolution) arithmetically. eventually lead Darwin to base natural selection on the idea that only some individuals could survive. ● Charles Darwin‟s Theor which ● This theory was the exposed that variation in main base of appearance or behaviour existed evolution during the in a population of individuals and nineteenth century. certain variations were ● Eventually natural advantageous in particular selection was environments. applied on human ● Some variations gave individuals behaviours and 1842-1844 more chance to survive than their possibilities to Natural (Industrial others. survive according ● Emphasizes that good traits could to mental abilities Selection Revolution) be preserved and passed on from and behaviours. parent to offspring. For example, the ● Most populations have more struggle of offspring than the resources competition for available leading to a struggle for resources between them. capitalism and ● Adaptation is the process through imperialism. which individuals evolve traits into more suited and therefore could leave more offspring. ● He was a paid collector. ● His contributions ● Co-creator of natural selection. were not as ● Wallace developed a similar recognized as theory of evolution to Darwin‟s Darwin‟s. Natural selection. ● Focused on ● Wallace rejected Darwin‟s idea spiritualism to that humans evolved the same change the idea of way as animals did. competition as the ● He accepted that his theory was violent behaviour of 1823-1913 not as complete as Darwin‟s people to achieve Alfred Russel (Industrial theory and eventually he power, economic published a complete book called success and social Wallace Revolution) Darwinism (1889). status, and instead ● At the end of his life, he focused to prove the on the study of spiritualism and existence of a the divinity that separated peaceful soul on humankind from the bad side of humans. humans. ● English sociologist and ● He explained the philosopher. social phenomena ● He published Principles of in a scientific way. Psychology (1890). ● In the context of ● Introduced the phrase “survival of progress and the fittest”. industrialization, 1820-1903 ● Believed that position in society social classes were was determined by characteristics created and Herbert (Industrial and abilities. competition for Spencer Revolution) ● He was the first who talked about good jobs, living evolution. conditions and ● Spencer was influenced by quality of life in the Malthus and saw that only the cities increased strongest tended to survive in life. therefore only the individual who were strong enough and
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