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History Exam Review

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HIST 1250
Tara Abraham

History Exam Review Academie Royale des Sciences - Issac Newton - natural philosopher who was respected both within and outside of the society as experts and significant scholars within the 18 century, he demonstrated that the law of gravitation and the laws of motion united the universe, no exceptions. Many philosophers and scientists used Newtons theories on the structure of the universe, Newtonian approach was created underlying universality of natural laws, argued all matter even light was made up of extremely small particles The Encyclopedie - it was a project of the enlightenment period by Diderot, first volume published in 1751, caused a senstation because French censors banned the book, pope said anyone reading it would be excommunicated, still remained the talk of Europe and reached a large audience sold 20,000 sets, had 28 volumes, point was to provide the most current info on every subject to Europeans, universal knowledge and belief in progress, he believed creating this book would make knowledge available and as a result society would be transformed th - the advancement of text into books during the 18 century allowed for knowledge to reach many new levels and places, this book started of a trend bringing out knowledge from every aspect and no longer hiding idea anymore, the 18 century way a period of development and societal change therefore the technology such as the printing press involved in creating this expanded the advancements Madame Geoffrin - she owned one of the leading salons, used her passed husbands wealth to bring together interesting and important people in one setting, she supported the encyclopedie financially and socially Tokugawa Shogunate th th - 17 to 19 century, military leader that ruled Japan in a period where Western science and culture was initially rejected and obsessed with threat of Western invasion therefore isolated, there was an artificial island where all the westerners were separated, taken to extremes where Christian books were banned and people were killed - This time period shows the skepticism in culture because so many new theories and ideas how of how life came to be or should be formed, leaving many cultures distressed, which lead to many feuds throughout the world, allowing for not much progression to get done due to the lack of actual knowledge about the world from a lack of technology to do so Deshima Joseph Banks - he was a naturalist and a member of the RSL than became president of it, paying passenger on his voyages as he instructed British expeditions, he worked with natural history to create a set of practices which we known now as biology with: collecting, displaying, identifying, naming and classifying being the main aspects. - This significance of this is that because of Banks journey and discoveries as well as his new methods of natural history it allowed science and the government to be intertwined, which was a huge deal at this time. Science was rarely supported by the government and now it was enforced by it, this allowed expeditions to take place worldwide and objects to be sold and brought back around the globe, having the science aspect is one thing but having the government allowed these objects to actually become well known and wanted.Hans Sloane - a late president of the RSL, had a collection of his legacy shown in the British Museum in the 18h century, he was a physician to the wealthy people of London, had a huge collection of new world plants, artifacts, shells, books, coins, collected them for their rarity not just to have a collection, it was visited by people like Linnaeus, Franklin Carl Linnaeus - considered a hero in the age of classification, also known as the enlightenment, he was the most famous naturalist at this time, he created guides and handbooks which is why his work flourished because it emerged in a time period when everyone had access, he wrote systema naturae of a system of nature with heirarchial levels: kingdom, class, order, family, genus, species, he was mainly a flora classifier, first person to name humans homosapiens, binomial classification of genus and species, product of his time, believed humans can use nature for own benefit, and sovereignty over nature Saartje Baartman - a khoi native of south Africa, taken to England in the early 19 century by William Dunlop, she was to be displayed in side shows as hottentot venus, it was a scandal because slavery was outlawed in England, so her show soon moved to France, scienctist wanted to study her because her unique features but refused, after she died her body parts were on display in Natural History Museum in Paris Johann Friedrich Blumenbach - he furthered categorization by developing model of relations among people, believed that th people were of one species but that there was a hierarchy of perfection among the rac
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