Study Guides (238,554)
Canada (115,195)
History (227)
HIST 2070 (2)

Take Home Final Exam

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
HIST 2070
Norman Smith

HIST 2070 DE World Religions in Historical Perspective Final Exam August 11, 2013 Sarah Murphy 0715438 Part A Identify and state the historical significance of the following: Martin Luther Martin Luther was a monk, a priest, and a lecturer; he also began the protestant reformation with publication of the ninety-five theses in 1517, which he had posted on the door of the University of Wittenberg‟s chapel. These theses criticized and attacked the church‟s sale of indulgences and explained the fundamentals of justice by grace alone. This post of the ninety- five theses marked the beginning of rationalism, individualism and reading (modernity) in the Christian religion. The ruler of Germany, at the time, enjoyed the idea of a reformation in the church so that he would be able to govern Christianity and religion as a whole within his own borders. This transformed Christianity in the western world from a mainly physical experience to a literal culture. Shi‟a Shi‟a is one of the two sects of the religion Islam; there is also Sunni Islam. Shi‟a Islam teaches its followers of the twelve Imams, or twelve prayer leaders of a mosque. In Shi‟a, each of the twelve Imams begins with „Ali‟, hence the direct translation of Shi‟a meaning “party of Ali.” This division of Islam sees the twelve Imams not as humans, but instead, as incarnations of the divine, himself. However, you can only know of eleven Imams, as the twelfth Imam is hidden and will only appear at some time chosen by Allah. This twelfth Imam was exposed as a young man, Ali Muhammed, or Shiraz, Iran in 1844, when he declared himself to be the hidden twelfth Imam, or the hidden gateway between the people and their God, himself. Pure Land Pure land is a division of Mahayana Buddhism. Amitabha, a previous Buddha, created and lived in the „pure‟ land where there was no evil and one could meditate to achieve Nirvana, this pure land was undisturbed of the changes in the world. This version of Buddhism was the th first to gain converts in China in huge numbers, it later entered Japan, and by the 13 century A.D., it was extremely well known. Japanese Buddhists called Amida taught followers that repetition of Buddha‟s name within the ritual formula, “Homage to the Buddha Amida”, would bring rebirth to the Pure Land. It was later discovered that attainment of the Pure Land was a free gift from Amida, and any devotions or expressions to Amida were purely for gratitude rather than a means to attain the perfect land. Qur‟an The Qur‟an is a record of teachings by God onto his prophet, Mohammed. During the month of Ramadan, the Angel Gabriel approached Mohammed while he was meditating on Mt. Hira. Mohammed told of these teachings, which were written down and kept. The Qur‟an is believed to be the final message of God to humanity where Mohammed was merely a vessel through which the message was received. The Qur‟an, to Muslims, is like the Holy Bible for Christians, or the Torah, for Jews. The Qur‟an represents diving thought in written form; it is the mind and essence of God, which has been communicated to others. The Bab The Bab, literally translated to “The Gate” is the twelfth Imam of Shi‟a Islam. The Bab was one of the messengers recognized in the Baha‟i faith, especially as being the forerunner of the Baha‟u‟llah, the prophet-founder of the Baha‟i Faith. The Bab‟s job was to prepare humanity for “Him Whom God Shall Make Manifest.” Although the Bab was said to be of major importance to Shi‟a Islam, his teachings, during his time, were considered a departure from Islam, and he was seen as a non-believer; because of this, he was executed by a firing squad. Before his execution, the Bab created a calendar for the Baha‟i faith. There are 19 months, each with 19 days, also with intercalary days. This is followed by a 19 day fast with New Years on the th 20 day being on March 21, the Spring Equinox. Constantine During one of the Civil Wars, at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in Rome, Emperor Constantine adopted the symbol of the cross as his battle symbol. At this very moment, Emperor Constantine recognized Christianity as a politically wise move. However, it was not until Constantine was dying, when he converted to Christianity. It was said if you were baptized just before death, you would go straight to heaven, as your body would have no more chances to sin. Constantine‟s conversion to Christianity changed the face of Christianity until the advent of secularization in the Western World. Because of Constantine, Christianity was promoted from persecuted status to favoured religion of the empire in 313 A.D. From this moment on, Rome was to be a Christian empire. Bonus Marks Identify & state the significance of the photograph: The picture is of Downtown Toronto‟s Eaton Centre. The picture is important because it shows that r
More Less

Related notes for HIST 2070

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.