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HIST 2600 Final Review.docx

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HIST 2600
Rebecca Beausaert

HIST 2600 Final Review Women th 1. 19 century a. no right to vote, pursue higher education and professional raining b. ideal woman is created from social reformers, critics and religious officials c. expected to stay at home, display piety, purity, submission and domesticity d. women start to migrate from farms to cities e. single and married immigrant women are coming to Canada f. unpaid employment on the farm and in the house g. double burden of their own chores as well as mens when it was busy 2. following industrialization a. duties in the home changed, fewer children at home, workloads increased b. inventions came out that helped womrn with their workloads c. more emphasis on cleanliness and hygiene d. putting out system that let women do factory work at home e. domestic service i. single most important paid employment for women in late 19 to early 20 century ii. abuse, horrible working conditions, illegitimacy, murder, high turnover, no options after employment f. factory work i. textiles and garments, canning factories ii. women saw it as modern and exciting iii. girls aged 11-12 were trying to work here, terrible wages (half of male counterparts) g. white collar jobs i. clerical work, secretaries, bookkeepers, typists, telegraphers ii. most respectable iii. retail work iv. unfair wages btu better conditions h. professional work i. teaching 1. elementary school mostly ii. nursing 1. respectable, but seen as cheap labour 3. wartime efforts a. created jobs that were previously unknown b. factory jobs; still receive low wages and other shit stuff c. needed in other traditionally male centred sectors; railways, steel and cement industry, telegraph messenger, public transit, white collar jobs d. more nurses e. larger number of married women working f. lots of women can never marry as we lost 60,000 men g. lots of voluntarism for the war; making clothes, raising money, producing goods h. 40 to 50 million dollars raised by women i. urged Canadians to be thrifty and fought inflation rates 4. post war a. 1921 first female in parliament b. the famous 5 campaign to become ‘persons’in 1929 women are persons c. birth control movement rumblings in 1920s d. birth control clinics open in the 30s e. flapper girl image represents break from tradition 5. WWII a. Needed in non traditional war related jobs b. Government encouraged recruitment to the labour force c. Decent wages, still low d. Offered mothers nurseries e. Propaganda: rosie the riveter, Ronnie the bren gun girl f. Temporary supply of work during war; women were fine with this g. 28,000 war brides h. first marriage was 43 days after Canadians arrived i. lots of women came back to Canada to escape, it was dangerous to cross the sea and weren’t usually received well back in Canada j. STDs rampant, VD campaign against them, blamed prostitutes and loose women Aboriginals 1. in the beginning of confederation a. 1% of population aboriginal b. 1870-76 treaties i. first nations are considered wards of the state ii. viewed as a nuisance iii. government wants to convince them to surrender their land via treaties iv. treaties that concern large pieces of land are signed quickly v. treaties affect Ojibwa, cree , blackfoot, sarcee, and stoneys vi. first nations see the treaties as the only hope for survival vii. lots of miscommunication and misinterpretation viii. some argue they were duped, some say they knew what was happening c. indian act i. amended over a 100 times ii. creation of the reserve system iii. aggressive policy of assimilation iv. makes first nations adopt white modes of education, pursue agriculture, white ways of dress ,etc v. legacy of madcondald government Gender 1. reform a. sex i. disapproval of sexual behavior outside of marriage ii. social reformers distribute manuals and preach purity and abstinence and lecture against the evils of sexual self abuse and promiscuity iii. scientific experts address social problems to poke into the minds of sexual deviants from mental hospitals, reformatories and prisons iv. governments establish morality departments 2. the girl problem and the boy problem a. social reformers don’t believe young women can fuction alone in the big city and are susceptible to bad social habits b. groups are formed to help women, keep them on the moral path c. late 19-early 20 century sees women being sent to jail, appearing in court more than usual d. vagrancy, prostitution and public drunkenness were ‘problems’ 3. wartime a. gender is reexamined in terms of roles, rights and responsibilities 4. great depression a. crisis of masculinity when men lose their jobs b. traditional male breadwinner model is disrupted c. high rates of domestic abuse and suicide d. women are turned down for pogey e. men turn to drinking and abandoning their families f. couples felt guilty about using contraception g. women tried to find paid work in th home h. husbands didn’t want wives working, househusbands didn’t help with chores i. families downsized, women had more chores 5. WWII; and post war a. Quicky marriages b. Infidelity was huge c. Sexual double standards; men could have affairs in European, women ccouldnt at home d. Women could have their government funding cancelled e. Lots of divorce post war English and French relations 1. beginning of confederation a. 1/3 of population speaks French b. liberal party is fractured between french and english 2. Canada first movement a. Launched by 5 torontonians devoted to promoting a specific type of nationalism b. Concerned about the lack of a uniquely caandian set of myths and symbols c. Used canadas ruggedness as its definition, how it fostered a superior race (white, anglo saxon) d. Doesn’t take into account French Canadians and first nations 3. Ultramontanism a. Nationalist movement emerging in quebec b. Product of resurgence of French-catholic sentiment in quebec c. Religion took precedence over the state, pope was supreme authority over religious and civil matters d. Favoured electing politicians who endorsed catholic views on marriage, education, and social order; protestant English Canadians didn’t support ultramontane views 4. Canada in the wake of Louis riels execution a. French Canadian feeligns towards the government are bad b. Leader of quebec wing pubically denounces conservative politicians like john a macdonald c. Parti national i. Mercier urges fellow Quebecers to form an exclusively French Canadian party that would put French Canadian interests first d. Mercier is elected premier of quebec 1886 5. Nationalism and provincial rights a. Jesuit estates controversy in 1888 i. Want their land returned to them, they are compensated financially ii. Pope acted as arbiter b. Protestant English dislike papal intervention in government affairs c. Dalton macarthy is anti catholic and conservative from Ontario and calls for the government to disallow Jesuit act, wants Canada to be one common culture based on british culture 6. New Brunswick schools question a. Provincial government moves to deny public support to separate French school providing religious instruction b. Removes minority rights and right of French to be educated differently than English majority c. John a macdonald requests the new brunwick provincial government to acknowledge minority rights 7. Manitoba schools question a. French population is getting smaller west of Ontario following huge migration of people b. Dalton macarthy speaks up against separate school system c. Fernch catholics outraged d. Schools act 1890; Manitoba established provincial department of education where separate schools wont receive government money and French is absolished as an official language in Manitoba 8. Autonomy bills a. Alberta and Saskatchewan are made provinces b. English becomes language of instruction in both protestant and catholic schools c. French is only taught tofrench speaking children in primary grades d. Religious instruction is limited to last half hour of day e. Fitzpatrick and Bourassa call for protection of French language and catholic school system f. Met with opposition from Clifford sifton 9. Royal commission on bilingualism and biculturalism a. More attention paid to quebec traditions and history b. Big changes to federal and provincial language policy c. Cultural dualism d. Important legislation in 60s and 70s e. 10 commissioners that represented both sides f. found that francophones weren’t well represented in economy or high up in government g. educational authorities in all provinces except quebc h. move to to teach French as a second language with financial backing from federal government i. new Brunswick officially bilingual, Ontario extended French services j. 1969 official languages act 10. bill 101 a. charter of the French language b. wants to make quebec super French c. dominance of French in quebec, limits English teaching in quebec and business being conducted in English d. radically transforms quebec e. lots ofAnglophones leave montreal and go to Toronto 11. parti quebecois 1968 a. still n power today b. wanted quebec to be sovereign but retain loose political and economic ties from Canada c. came to power in 1976 d. sovereignty referendum in 1980; 60% said no e. 1982 repatriation; Canada now has full control over their affairs 12. 1995 quebec referendum a. creation of the federal political party (bloc quebecois) in favour of quebec sovereignty and wanted graeter protection of quebecs interests in the house of commons b. 50.6% for the non, 93% voted c. could still see quebec separating from Canada in the future Immigration th 1. later 19 century a. 1882 to 1914 saw huge immigration boom i. 4 million immigrants b. aggressive immigration program attracts new comers to the west c. government initially had difficulty attracting immigrants til turn of century d. competition for immigrants with USA, the ideal immigrants are going there e. those that headed west were already in Ontario or the maritimes f. first foreign immigrants in the west were the Mennonites, Icelanders and jews from eastern Europe seeking refuge from Russian rule g. Clifford sifton becomes minister of the interior i. Amps up immigration program ii. Convinced railway promotors and Hudson bay company to sell setttlers land at decent prices iii. Creates immigration offices in Britain and USA iv. Promises of adventure and opportunity in Canada v. Semi-open door policy vi. Offers European shipping agents money for every European they bring over 2. Immigration hierarchy a. British and americans b. Western and northern Europeans i. Didn’t really want to come to canada c. Eastern Europeans i. Not protestant or English speaking ii. Experienced farmers and similar climates d. Southern Europeans i. Undesirable ii. Too migratory, not farmers e. African americans andAsians i. Gold rush in Yukon ii. Inassimilable because of language, religion, skin colour iii. Head tax forAsians (not Japanese cause they are allies of Britain) iv. Chinese men are taken advantange of v. Keeps out manyAfrican americans, only 1500 in 1901-10 3. Enemy aliens a. Countries that Canada was at war with b. Racially profiled, censored letters, censoring publications in their language c. Required to carry identity cards and report to the RCMP or police attachment on a monthly basis d. 80,000 registered during WWI e. sent to internment camps if refused to do monthly check in f. 8500 interned, mostly men g. those that once were fairly desirable are now hated h. new modes of propaganda during WWII that pits enemy aliens against Canadians i. pacifists, conscientious objectors and enemy aliens treated harshly WWII j. more intenment camps; Italians were targeted, japs faced worst treatment of all k. 20,000 japs sent to internment camps, lost their properties, families separated 4. Racism a. Government and populous are racist b. Not open to multiculturalism c. Immigration acts in 1906 and 1910 to become selective and greater powers to deport d. Groups facing overt discrimination aren’t given right to vote in western provinces e. KKK flourished in the 20s in the western provinces f. Strong anti-asian sentiment post war g. Claims that the white race was being outbred by the degenerates h. Alberta sexual sterilization act (1928); eugenics board gets authority to sterilze people i. 99% of petitions were approved (4785 cases) 5. post WWII a. another immigration boom, many Europeans escaping b. 40s and 50s; Canada needs to provide refuge; many jews and Mennonites c. 1.7 million post war immigrants in 1957 d. still didn’t wantAsia
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