HIST3130 Study guide 2 article notes The code of honor and its critics: the opposition to dueling by Andrew Donna CONTINUE LATER Dueling is characterized as militating against all social, all moral, all religious duty. Spurns law, equity and humanity. We think about it as a romantic practice while it is actually a major threat to public peace and sanctity of religion. In this case, the guilt or innocence of an accused person was determined by the outcome of the trial. Had to be carried out in a secretive and private manner. There has been royal proclamation against the practice and some clerical condemnation, still strived through the 17 century dual between lord Mohun and the Duke of Hamilton that focused public opinion towards the value of the duel. It was the ferocity and illregulated nature of this duel that caused parliament to suppress the practice. Focus on the false interpretation of honor upon which the practice was based on. Practice would not discipline until the vision of society on which it was based could be overthrown and superseded. Duel was formal and wellmannered, contained and gave form to passions which generated it. Dueling substituted a wellcrafted conflict for a potentially endless state of war. Could be casual or irregular violence. Often due to one questioning the honesty and courage of another gentleman. After the fight they were expected to make peace between the contenders. The friend of the injured party would convey the challenge to the offender, duelist with their surgeon and seconds would meet the next day. A mans honor was the most central aspect of his identity and its reputation had to be kept untarnished by any means necessary. They were attended by hundreds of people and were a way for men to publicly prove their courage and manliness. When a court could offer a gentleman no real justice, this had to be done with the shedding of blood. In ancient tradition, each side would send out their champion as the representative of their army. It would serve as a prelude to the ensuing battle and would be a sign to which side the gods favored. Trial by combat was considered a form of justice, whoever lost would be assumed the guilty party Critics argued that dueling was unnecessarily violent and contrary to morality, religion, common sense and antithetical (incompatible) to the very concept of honor itself. To avoid being challenged to a duel, gentlemen were careful not to insult or slight others. This was done to increase civility throughout society. Less time and inclination to duel later on. If a gentleman refused to duel, this would lose face and honor. He might notice in the paper his decision. Last dying speeches by Sharpe Public execution of John Marketman who murdered an individual. He was jealous of his wife who believed that she was keeping company with a former lover while he had been on a voyage. He came home drunk and she was afraid of how he would be once waking up, she left to a neighbors house. Her fears were justified as he awoke suspicious to her substance, he tracked her down and stabbed her to death (she was pregnant at the time). He was hung at the normal place of execution in Chelmsford Murderer begged as the last request of the judge, his performance was genuine and unpremeditated. He received the favor of the merciful judge of a considerable time to allow his sins before him. He was told to reflect on his sins as well as the thinking about his execution stress. As he was a man experiencing a number of spiritual and emotional torments, he was anxious to alleviate as many as possible before his death.