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HIST 3130 Study Guide - Final Guide: The Symbolic, Robert Throckmorton, Newgate Prison

6 pages104 viewsFall 2017

Course Code
HIST 3130
Linda Mahood
Study Guide

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HIST3130 Study guide #2 article notes
The code of honor and its critics: the opposition to dueling by Andrew Donna CONTINUE LATER
Dueling is characterized as militating against all social, all moral, all religious duty. Spurns law,
equity and humanity. We think about it as a romantic practice while it is actually a major threat
to public peace and sanctity of religion. In this case, the guilt or innocence of an accused
person was determined by the outcome of the trial. Had to be carried out in a secretive and
private manner. There has been royal proclamation against the practice and some clerical
condemnation, still strived through the 17th century
- dual between lord Mohun and the Duke of Hamilton that focused public opinion towards
the value of the duel. It was the ferocity and ill-regulated nature of this duel that caused
parliament to suppress the practice. Focus on the false interpretation of honor upon
which the practice was based on. Practice would not discipline until the vision of society on
which it was based could be overthrown and superseded.
- Duel was formal and well-mannered, contained and gave form to passions which
generated it. Dueling substituted a well-crafted conflict for a potentially endless state of
war. Could be casual or irregular violence. Often due to one questioning the honesty and
courage of another gentleman.
- After the fight they were expected to make peace between the contenders. The friend of
the injured party would convey the challenge to the offender, duelist with their surgeon and
seconds would meet the next day.
- A a’s hoor as the ost etral aspet of his idetit ad its reputatio had to e
kept untarnished by any means necessary. They were attended by hundreds of people and
were a way for men to publicly prove their courage and manliness. When a court could
offer a gentleman no real justice, this had to be done with the shedding of blood.
- In ancient tradition, each side would send out their champion as the representative of
their army. It would serve as a prelude to the ensuing battle and would be a sign to which
side the gods favored.
- Trial by combat was considered a form of justice, whoever lost would be assumed the
guilty party
- Critics argued that dueling was unnecessarily violent and contrary to morality, religion,
common sense and antithetical (incompatible) to the very concept of honor itself. To avoid
being challenged to a duel, gentlemen were careful not to insult or slight others. This was
done to increase civility throughout society. Less time and inclination to duel later on.
- If a gentleman refused to duel, this would lose face and honor. He might notice in the
paper his decision.
Last dying speeches by Sharpe
Public execution of John Marketman who murdered an individual. He was jealous of his wife
who believed that she was keeping company with a former lover while he had been on a
voyage. He came home drunk and she was afraid of how he would be once waking up, she left
to a eighor’s house. Her fears ere justified as he awoke suspicious to her substance, he
tracked her down and stabbed her to death (she was pregnant at the time). He was hung at
the normal place of execution in Chelmsford
Murderer begged as the last request of the judge, his performance was genuine and
unpremeditated. He received the favor of the merciful judge of a considerable time to allow
his sins before him. He was told to reflect on his sins as well as the thinking about his
execution stress. As he was a man experiencing a number of spiritual and emotional torments,
he was anxious to alleviate as many as possible before his death.
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- Public executions were not a display of brutality intended to cow or entertain, but instead
as a context of ceremony and ritual
- Marketman would have made a farewell speech in a very stereotyped form. It was done to
remind spectators that the death of the condemned constituted an awful warning.
- Execution is not just a symbol of brutality but also a social and cultural context. Execution is
a state power however hangings do not deter people.
Jeremy Bentham, Elizabeth Fry and Prison reform by Cooper
Both were major impulses for an English prison reform during the 19th, Quaker reformer was
Fry while Bentham was the leader of the Benthamite prison system. Assumption that these
two individuals mobilized talented and influential followers to support their ways concerning
the direction of prison reform.
Bentham held views separate from Fry as he wanted to mold prison legislation. Bentham had
ideas of pleasure-pain whereas Fry had plans of evangelicalism and wanted to have productive
labor in prisons as well as the maintenance of healthful prison conditions. Betha’s
followers had confidence in solitary confinement and hard labor.
- Fry was concerned primarily with the salvation (sociological or religious) of the prisoner
whereas Bentham was concerned with deterring crime. Benthamites in 1835 had rejected
Betha’s priso ideas as disissed Fry’s opiio
- Betha’s ideas of solitar ofieet ad hard laor did not last long as his panopticon
idea rejected solitary confinement and hard labor as productive of a reformation of
manners. Model of a circular building in which the cells of the prisoners would form the
iruferee hile the gaoler’s roo ould ocupy the center. Prisoners would always
be under the eye of the prison guard or at least they would believe they were. Inspectors
were required to do an effective job as the inspector was to best insure the good behavior
of the prisoner. Also believed that solitary confinement did not contribute positively to
reforming the mind, he believed it was a dangerous punishment.
- Bentham believed that putting prisoners to work was good as it taught the idle to love
work rather than avoid it. Believed that being idle created deviance. Also believed that
education was important to reform. Good to stamp out illiteracy. Believed that punishment
should be directly linked to the offence
- Controversial part of the panopticon plan was that he would farm out the management of
the prison to a contractor who would absorb profit or losses from the venture. Public would
save money and the contractor would pay a sum for each man that died in the prison. This
would make the gaoler more responsible to the magistrate. Overall it was rejected due to
limitations of size and only creating a single central point for inspection.
Elizaeth Fr’s eperiee as a priso reforer did ot hae the sae itteress ad
disappoitet that haraterized Betha’s areer, she wanted to be an angel of mercy. She
cultivated friendship with the great and powerful.
- Bentham had ties to science and was more cynical in his compelling personal ambitions.
Fr’s otiatio as etirel religious, elieed that prisoer refor ould oe fro the
intervention of god. She saw the horrors of the London prison and was asked to help
alleviate the condition. Urged women to accept the word of Christ
- Prison reform included profits of labor returning to them, prisoners being employed,
learning how to read the bible. It was an object of hope
- Testified before a parliamentary committee that was investigating Newgate prison, she
urged them to use religious instruction, classification and employment. She was opposed to
solitary confinement and recommended that hard labor was only for the most hardened
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