2 - Carriage of CO2 & O2, ventilation (END OF MIDTERM 1).pdf

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
Department
Course
I. Carriage of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
West - Chapter 6 (up to page 83)
II. Control of Ventilation
West - Chapter 8
sept 14th
Duty cycle = Ti / (Ti + Te) - T total
~ 30%
(30% of the time breathing in
and 30% breathing out)
Phrenic Activity
----------------------
- diaphragm (hooked needle :. you can keep needle
when you inhale on the muscle)
(when you inhale, moves down)
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II. Control of Ventilation
It must be automatic.
It must be adaptable to the needs of the organism.
It must be subject to voluntary control.
- regulates amt of O2 & CO2 in blood
- we don't have to think about when to take a breath
- wake & sleep (constantly going)
- we have to be able to increase or decrease
- when we talk we regulate when to take breaths in between words
- holding breath when needed
- playing instruments
- major muscle for respiration: diaphragm
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Diaphragm & phrenic
Motor fibers of the corticospinal tract originate in the cerebral cortex,
cross over in the medulla, and descend in the spinal cord. Motor fibers
of the bulbospinal tract originate in the respiratory neurons of the
medulla, cross over at or near the upper cervical cord, and descend in
the spinal cord. The fibers synapse with the phrenic motor neurons
that innervate the diaphragm
Voluntary (corticospinal tract) and automatic
(bulbospinal tract) pathways that control breathing.
************
Sternum
Ribs
X
X
X
X
X
Spine
X
--
--
--
--
--
--
* phrenic nerve
-------------->
C
345
- C3, 4, 5 spinal cord: if you dislocate this, you
lose the ability to breathe
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Document Summary

West - chapter 6 (up to page 83) It must be adaptable to the needs of the organism. Voluntary (corticospinal tract) and automatic (bulbospinal tract) pathways that control breathing. Motor fibers of the corticospinal tract originate in the cerebral cortex, cross over in the medulla, and descend in the spinal cord. Motor fibers of the bulbospinal tract originate in the respiratory neurons of the medulla, cross over at or near the upper cervical cord, and descend in the spinal cord. The fibers synapse with the phrenic motor neurons that innervate the diaphragm. Effects of o2 on peripheral chemoreceptors e s n o p s e. Effects of co2 on ventilation i n m. Modulation of co2 ventilatory response i n m. Effects of o2 on ventilation i n m. Other receptors: irritant, j receptors, c-fibers, upper airway receptors, joint and muscle receptors, muscle spindles of the diaphragm, arterial baroreceptors, pain and temperature.

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