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HROB 2090 Quiz: Applied Quiz 1 Notes on Chapter 1 & 2

26 Pages

Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
Course Code
HROB 2090

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Chapter 1: Organizational Behaviour and Management What is Organizational Behaviour? The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations. Goal of Organizational Behaviour • Help organizations become more effective • Predicting organizational behaviour and events. • Explaining organizational behaviour and events in organizations. • Managing organizational behaviour. • Example: • Productivity • Employee job satisfaction • Organizational commitment • Absenteeism • Turnover • Organizational Behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and organization-level processes have on behaviour within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. Evidence-Based Management • Involves translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practices. • Making decisions based on the best available scientific evidence from social science and organizational research rather than personal preference and unsystematic experience. • The use of evidence-based management is more likely to result in the attainment of organizational goals. 1 Why don’t Mangers Practice Evidence-Based Management? • Discussed more generally in the Pfeffer and Sutton article assigned for this week. • Negative perceptions of research • Research reports are themselves plagued by disagreements and confusions, creating a sense of distrust and mystery about the research process. • One source of this problem is that the term research is used by many to refer to various types of information that are not acquired through the standard rigorous scientific process of research. Management Practices of the Best Companies to Work for in Canada • Flexible work schedules • Stock-options, profit-sharing, and bonuses • Opportunities for learning and development • Family assistance programs • Career development programs • Wellness and stress reduction programs • Employee recognition and reward programs Contemporary Management – The Contingency Approach • The merits of both approaches are recognized today. • Management approaches need to be tailored to fit the situation. • The complexity of human behaviour means that an organizational behaviour text cannot be a “cookbook.” • The general answer to many of the problems in organizations is: “It depends.” • Dependencies are called contingencies. 2 • The contingency approach to management recognizes that there is no one best way to manage. • An appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation. Henry Mintzberg discovered a rather complex set of roles played by managers: – Interpersonal roles – Informational roles – Decisional roles Managerial Activities • Fred Luthans, Richard Hodgetts, and Stuart Rosenkrantz found that managers engage in four basic types of activities: – Routine communication (formal sending and receiving information) – Traditional management (planning, decision making, controlling) – Networking (interaction with people outside of the organization) – Human resource management (motivating, reinforcing, disciplining, punishing, managing conflict, staffing, training and developing employees) – All these managerial activities involve dealing with people. Some Contemporary Management Concerns 3 • Four issues with which organizations and managers are currently concerned: – Diversity – Local and Global – Employee Health and Well-Being – Talent Management and Employee Engagement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Diversity – Local and Global • The Canadian workforce is becoming increasingly culturally diverse. • Many organizations have not treated certain segments of the population fairly in many aspects of employment. • Global business has increased and so has the need to understand how workers and customers in other countries are diverse and culturally different. • What does diversity have to do with organizational behaviour? • Organizational behaviour is concerned with issues that have to do with the management of a diverse workforce and how to benefit from the opportunities that a diverse workforce provides. Employee Health and Well-Being • Increased concerns over job security, increasing job demands, and work-related stress. • Absenteeism and turnover are on the rise. • Increasing stress levels and poorly designed jobs are major causes. • Negative effect on employee physical and psychological health and well-being. • Work-life conflict is a major stressor and cause of absenteeism. • Increasing awareness of mental health problems in the workplace. 4 • Organizations have begun to focus on mental health and to create more positive work environments. • What does employee health and well-being have to do with organizational behaviour? • Organizational behaviour is concerned with creating positive work environments that contribute to employee health and wellness. • Two examples of this are workplace spirituality positive organizational behaviour (POB). Psychological Capital (PsyCap) • An individual’s positive psychological state of development that is characterized by self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resilience. • Each of the components of PsyCap are states not traits; they are positive work-related psychological resources that can be changed, modified, and developed. • PsyCap is positively related to employee well-being, job attitudes, and job performance, and negatively related to employee anxiety, stress, and turnover intentions. • PsyCap interventions (PCI) can be used to develop employees’ PsyCap. • Organizations can improve employee health and well-being by developing employees’ PsyCap. Talent Management and Employee Engagement • Talent management refers to an organization’s processes for attracting, developing, retaining, and utilizing people with the required skills to meet current and future business needs. • The management of talent has become a major organizational concern that requires the involvement of all levels of management. • Work engagement refers to a positive work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigour, dedication, and absorption. • It has been reported that only one-third of workers are engaged. 5 • Engaged workers have more positive job attitudes and higher job performance. • Employee engagement is considered to be key to an organization’s success and competitiveness. • What does talent management and employee engagement have to do with organizational behaviour ? • Organizational behaviour provides the means for organizations to be designed and managed in ways that optimize the attraction, development, retention, engagement, and performance of talent. Corporate Social Responsibility • Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to an organization taking responsibility for the impact of its decisions and actions on its stakeholders. • It extends beyond the interests of shareholders to the interests and needs of employees and the community in which it operates. • What does a focus on social responsibility have to do with organizational behaviour? • Many CSR issues have to do with organizational behaviour (e.g., treatment of employees, work-family balance, employee well- being). • CSR also involves environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues, and a concern for the environment and green initiatives. • An organization’s CSR activities and policies are associated with financial performance as well as employee attitudes, engagement, and performance. • CSR also has implications for the recruitment and retention of employees. • Organizational behaviour can help organizations become more socially responsible. Chapter 2: Personality and Learning 6 What Is Personality? • The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment and how he or she feels, thinks, and behaves. • Dimensions and traits that are determined by genetic predisposition and one’s long-term learning history. • People have a variety of personality characteristics. • Personality has a long history in organizational behaviour. • The role of personality in organizational behaviour has often been debated in what is known as the “person-situation debate” • This has led to three approaches: • The dispositional approach • The situational approach • The interactionist approach The Dispositional Approach • Focuses on individual dispositions and personality. • Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours. • Individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways. The Situational Approach • Characteristics of the organizational setting such as rewards and punishment influence people’s feelings, attitudes and behaviour. • Many studies have shown that job satisfaction and other work- related attitudes are largely determined by situational factors such as the characteristics of work tasks. The Interactionist Approach • Organizational behaviour (individuals’ attitudes and behaviour) is a function of both dispositions and the situation. 7 • To predict and understand organizational behaviour, we need to know something about an individual’s personality and the work setting. • The interactionist approach is the most widely accepted perspective within organizational behaviour. Personality and the Situation • Situations can be described as being either “weak” or “strong”. • In weak situations, roles are loosely defined, there are few rules and weak reinforcement and punishment contingencies. • Personality has the strongest effect in weak situations. • In strong situations, the roles, rules, and contingencies are more defined. • Personality has less of an impact in strong situations. • The extent to which personality influences people’s attitudes and behaviour depends on the situation. Trait Activation Theory • Personality traits lead to certain behaviours only when the situation makes the need for the trait salient. • Personality influences people’s behaviour when the situation calls for a particular personality characteristic. Implications of the Interactionist Approach • Some personality characteristics are useful in certain organizational situations. • There is no one best personality. • Managers need to appreciate the advantages of employee diversity. • The importance of fit - putting the right person in the right job, group, or organization. The Five-Factor Model of Personality (AKA. Big Five or OCEAN) 8 • Five basic but general dimensions that describe personality: – Extraversion – Emotional stability/neuroticism – Agreeableness – Conscientiousness – Openness to experience Extraversion and OB • Important for jobs that require interpersonal interaction and where being sociable, assertive, energetic, and ambitious is important for success. • High extraversion E.g. Managers, or Salespeople Emotional stability/neuroticism and OB • Persons high on emotional stability will have more effective interactions with co-workers and customers as they tend to be more clam and secure. Agreeableness and OB • Contributes to job performance in jobs that require interaction and involve helping, cooperating, and nurturing others as well as in jobs that involve teamwork and cooperation. Conscientiousness and OB • Important for job performance on most jobs given the tendency towards hard work and achievement. Openness to Experience and OB • Important for jobs that involve learning and creativity given the tendency to be intellectual, curious, and imaginative and have broad interests. The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Research • Each of the “Big Five” dimensions is related to job performance and organizational citizenship behaviours. 9 • Best predictors of job performance depends on the occupation. • Conscientiousness is the strongest predictor of overall job performance across all occupations. • The “Big Five” are also related to: • Retention and attendance. • Counterproductive behaviours, unsafe work behaviour and workplace deviance. • Work motivation, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. • Team behaviours such as cooperation. • Career success. Locus of Control • A set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external factors. • Internals believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour resides within themselves. • Externals believe that external forces determine their behaviour. The Internal/External Locus of Control Continuum 10 Locus of Control: Research • Internals are more satisfied with their jobs, more committed to their organization, earn more money, and achieve higher organizational positions. • Internals perceive less stress, cope with stress better and experience less burnout, and engage in more careful career planning. • Internals are less likely to be absent from work and are more satisfied with their lives. Self-Monitoring • The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships. • High self-monitors take great care to observe and control the images that they project. • High self-monitors show concern for socially appropriate emotions and behaviours, and tune into social and interpersonal 11 cues; they regulate their behaviour and self-presentation according to these cues. Self-Monitoring: Research • High self-monitors gravitate to jobs that require role-playing and the use of their self-presentation skills. • High self-monitors are more involved in their jobs, perform better, and are more likely to emerge as leaders. • High self-monitors experience more role stress and show less commitment to their organization. • High self-monitors are not comfortable in ambiguous social settings in which it is hard to determine what behaviours are socially appropriate. • Dealing with unfamiliar cultures might provoke stress. Self-Esteem • The degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation. • People with high self-esteem have favourable self-images. • People with low self-esteem have unfavourable self-images. Self-Esteem and Behavioural Plasticity Theory • People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self- esteem. • Events and people in organizations have more impact on the beliefs and actions of employees with low self-esteem. Self-Esteem: Research • Employees with low self-esteem react badly to negative feedback – it lowers subsequent performance. • People with high self-esteem make more fulfilling career decisions and have higher job satisfaction and job performance. • Peop
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