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Study Guide

HROB 3100 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Creative Problem-Solving, Synectics, Creativity
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33 Pages
109 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
Course Code
HROB 3100
Professor
Jamie Gruman
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
HROB 3100
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
HTM*3100 Developing Managerial and Leadership Competencies (J. Gruman)
Chapter 1: Developing Self-Awareness (p. 37-66)
Sensitive line: the point at which individuals become defensive or protective when
encountering information about themselves that is inconsistent
Threat-rigidity response: when individuals are threatened, encounter uncomfortable
information or when uncertainty is created, they tend to become rigid
Self-disclosure: revealing to others ambiguous or inconsistent aspects of oneself, a
process necessary for growth
Interpersonal competence: the ability to manage conflict, to build and manage high-
performance teams, to conduct efficient meetings, to coach and counsel employees, to
provide negative feedback in constructive ways, to influence others opinions and to
motivate and energize employees
Process: a sequential set of activities designed to lead to a specific outcome
Five Core Aspects of Self-Awareness
Emotional intelligence: the ability to correctly diagnose and manage ones own
emotions and relationships with others
o The ability to diagnose and recognize your own emotions
o The ability to control your own emotions
o The ability to recognize and diagnose emotions displayed by others
o The ability to respond appropriately to emotional cues
Personal values: an individuals standards that define what is good/bad,
worthwhile/worthless, desirable/undesirable, true/false, moral/immoral
(instrumental and terminal)
Cognitive style: the manner in which you gather and process information
Orientation toward change: an individuals adaptability to ever-increasing levels of
ambiguity and turbulence
Core self-evaluation: a concept that captures the essential aspects of personality; it
accounts for the five personality dimensions (neuroticism, extroversion,
conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness)
Learning style: the way in which individuals perceive, interpret and respond to
information
Cultural Values
Universalism: the ethical decision principle that a decision is right and proper if
everyone would be expected to behave in the same way under the same circumstances
Particularism: an emphasis on relationships and close personal connections to govern
behaviour, used in contrast to universalism orientation (one of the key dimensions that
identifies international cultural differences)
Affective orientation: an emphasis on open displays of emotion and feeling as being
acceptable, used in contrast to a neutral orientation (one of the key dimensions that
identifies international cultural differences)
find more resources at oneclass.com
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Neutral orientation: an emphasis on rational and stoic approaches to problem solving,
used in contrast to an affective orientation (one of the key dimensions that identifies
international cultural differences)
Specificity orientation: an emphasis on separating work, family and personal roles in a
society, used in contrast to diffusion orientation (one of the key dimensions that
identifies international cultural differences)
Diffuseness orientation: an emphasis on integrating work, family and personal roles in a
society, used in contrast to specificity orientation (one of the key dimensions that
identifies international cultural differences)
Achievement orientation: an emphasis on personal accomplishment and merit as the
basis for getting ahead, used in contrast to an ascription orientation (one of the key
dimensions that identifies international cultural differences)
Ascription orientation: an emphasis on attributes such as age, gender or family
background as the basis for getting ahead, used in contrast to achievement orientation
(one of the key dimensions that identifies international cultural differences)
Organizational culture: the values and basic assumptions typify an organization, refers
to the most basic elements of an organization, or just the way things are done around
here
Value Dimensions
Explanation
Example of Countries with
Dominance
Universalism
Particularism
Societal rules and norms
are valued
Individual relationships are
valued
U.S., Switzerland, Norway,
Sweden
Korea, Venezuela, China,
Indonesia
Individualism
Collectivism
Individual contributions are
valued
Team contributions are
valued
U.S., Nigeria, Denmark, Austria
Mexico, Indonesia, Japan,
Philippines
Affective
Neutral
Showing emotions is valued
Unemotional responses are
valued
Iran, Spain, France, Switzerland
Korea, Ethiopia, China, Japan
Specific
Diffuse
Segregating lifes roles is
valued
)ntegrating lifes role is
valued
Holland, Sweden, Denmark, U.K.
China, Nigeria, Singapore, Korea
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UofG HROB 3100 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at oneclass.com HTM*3100 – Developing Managerial and Leadership Competencies (J. Gruman) Chapter 1: Developing Self-Awareness (p. 37-66)  Sensitive line: the point at which individuals become defensive or protective when encountering information about themselves that is inconsistent  Threat-rigidity response: when individuals are threatened, encounter uncomfortable information or when uncertainty is created, they tend to become rigid  Self-disclosure: revealing to others ambiguous or inconsistent aspects of oneself, a process necessary for growth  Interpersonal competence: the ability to manage conflict, to build and manage high- performance teams, to conduct efficient meetings, to coach and counsel employees, to provide negative feedback in constructive ways, to influence others▯ opinions and to motivate and energize employees  Process: a sequential set of activities designed to lead to a specific outcome Five Core Aspects of Self-Awareness  Emotional intelligence: the ability to correctly diagnose and manage one▯s own emotions and relationships with others o The ability to diagnose and recognize your own emotions o The ability to control your own emotions o The ability to recognize and diagnose emotions displayed by others o The ability to respond appropriately to emotional cues  Personal values: an individual▯s standards that define what is good/bad, worthwhile/worthless, desirable/undesirable, true/false, moral/immoral (instrumental and terminal)  Cognitive style: the manner in which you gather and process information  Orientation toward change: an individual▯s adaptability to ever-increasing levels of ambiguity and turbulence  Core self-evaluation: a concept that captures the essential aspects of personality; it accounts for the five personality dimensions (neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness)  Learning style: the way in which individuals perceive, interpret and respond to information Cultural Values  Universalism: the ethical decision principle that a decision is right and proper if everyone would be expected to behave in the same way under the same circumstances  Particularism: an emphasis on relationships and close personal connections to govern behaviour, used in contrast to universalism orientation (one of the key dimensions that identifies international cultural differences)  Affective orientation: an emphasis on open displays of emotion and feeling as being acceptable, used in contrast to a neutral orientation (one of the key dimensions that identifies international cultural differences) find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Neutral orientation: an emphasis on rational and stoic approaches to problem solving, used in contrast to an affective orientation (one of the key dimensions that identifies international cultural differences)  Specificity orientation: an emphasis on separating work, family and personal roles in a society, used in contrast to diffusion orientation (one of the key dimensions that identifies international cultural differences)  Diffuseness orientation: an emphasis on integrating work, family and personal roles in a society, used in contrast to specificity orientation (one of the key dimensions that identifies international cultural differences)  Achievement orientation: an emphasis on personal accomplishment and merit as the basis for getting ahead, used in contrast to an ascription orientation (one of the key dimensions that identifies international cultural differences)  Ascription orientation: an emphasis on attributes such as age, gender or family background as the basis for getting ahead, used in contrast to achievement orientation (one of the key dimensions that identifies international cultural differences)  Organizational culture: the values and basic assumptions typify an organization, refers to the most basic elements of an organization, or ▯just the way things are done around here▯ Value Dimensions Explanation Example of Countries with Dominance Universalism Societal rules and norms U.S., Switzerland, Norway, are valued Sweden Particularism Individual relationships are Korea, Venezuela, China, valued Indonesia Individualism Individual contributions are U.S., Nigeria, Denmark, Austria valued Collectivism Team contributions are Mexico, Indonesia, Japan, valued Philippines Affective Showing emotions is valued Iran, Spain, France, Switzerland Neutral Unemotional responses are Korea, Ethiopia, China, Japan valued Specific Segregating life▯s roles is Holland, Sweden, Denmark, U.K. valued Diffuse )ntegrating life▯s role is China, Nigeria, Singapore, Korea valued find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Achievement Personal accomplishment is U.S., Norway, Canada, Austria valued Ascription Inherent attributes are Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Czech valued Republic Past and Present Past is tightly connected to France, Japan, U.K. future Future Future is disconnected but U.S., Holland valued Internal Individual control is valued U.S., Canada, Austria, U.K. External Control comes from outside Czech Republic, Japan, Egypt, forces China Personal Values  Instrumental values: those values that prescribe desirable standards of conduct or methods to reach a goal  Terminal values: those values that designate desirable ends or goals for an individual  Values maturity: the level of moral development displayed by individuals  Self-centered level: the first level of values maturity, contains two stages of values development, moral reasoning and instrumental values which are based on personal needs or wants and the consequences of an act  Conformity level: the second level of values maturity, at which moral reasoning is based on agreement with and support of society▯s conventions and expectations  Principled level: the third and highest level of values maturity in which an individual judges right from wrong by following internalized principles developed from personal experience Kohlberg (1969) – Heinz (assessment test)  Ethical decision making: a well-developed set of moral principles used when making decisions Standards for testing values and principles for making moral or ethical choices  Front page test: Would I be embarrassed if my decision became a headline in the local newspaper? Would I feel comfortable describing my actions or decision to a customer or stockholder?  Golden rule test: Would I be willing to be treated in the same manner?  Dignity and liberty test: Are the dignity and liberty of others preserved by this decision? Is the basic humanity of the affected parties enhanced? Are their opportunities expanded or curtailed?  Equal treatment test: Are the rights, welfare, and betterment of minorities and lower status people given full consideration? Does this decision benefit those with privilege but without merit? find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Personal gain test: Is an opportunity for personal gain clouding my judgment? Would I make the same decision if the outcome did not benefit me in any way?  Congruence test: Is this decision or action consistent with my espoused personal principles? Does it violate the spirit of any organizational policies or laws?  Procedural justice test: Can the procedures used to make this decision stand up to scrutiny by those affected?  Cost-benefit test: Does a benefit for some cause unacceptable harm to others? How critical is the benefit? Can the harmful effects be mitigated?  Good night▯s sleep test: Whether or not anyone else knows about my action, will it produce a good night▯s sleep?  Virtuousness test: Does this represent the best of the human condition or the highest aspirations to which human beings aspire? Attributes of Three Dimensions of Cognitive style Attributes Possible liabilities Knowing - Emphasizes facts, details, - Slow to make decisions and data - Uncreative - Seeks clear, objective - Resistant to innovation solutions - Intolerant of multiple - Focuses on validity, views credibility of data - Emphasizes accuracy and precision Planning - Emphasizes planning and - Frustrated by the status preparation quo - Seeks agenda and - Intolerant of ambiguity outlines - Overhwelmed by chaos - Focuses on methods, - Can▯t handle illogical processes and follow-up issues - Emphasizes clear actions and routines Creating - Emphasizes creativity, - Resistant to structure risk-taking and - Tends to break rules innovation - May make many mistakes - Seeks novelty and - Tends to ignore data and ambiguity facts - Focuses on spontaneity and possibilities - Emphasizes interaction and getting many inputs find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Tolerance of ambiguity: the extent to which individuals are threatened by or have difficulty coping with situations that are ambiguous, where change occurs rapidly or unpredictably, where information is inadequate or unclear, or where complexity exists  Locus of control: the attitude people develop regarding the extent to which they are in control of their own destinies  Internal locus of control: when individuals interpret the reinforcement they receive to be contingent on their own actions ▯▯) was the cause of the success/failure▯▯  External locus of control: individuals interpret the reinforcement as being a product of outside forces ▯▯Something or someone else caused the success or failure▯▯ Chapter 2: Managing Stress and Well-being (p. 90-113)  Stressors: stimuli that cause physiological and psychological reactions in individuals  Enactive strategies: a method of managing stress that creates a new environment by eliminating the stressors  Proactive strategies: a method of managing stress that initiates action in order to resist the negative effects of stress  Reactive strategies: a method for managing stress that copes with the stressors immediately, temporarily reducing their effects  Time stressors: the type of stressor generally caused by having too much to do in too little time  Encounter stressors: the type of stressor that results from interpersonal conflict  Situational stressors: the type of stressor that arises from an individual▯s environment or circumstances, such as unfavorable working conditions  Anticipatory stressors: the anxious expectation of unfamiliar, uncertain, or disagreeable events Four Key Sources of Stress Time stressors - Work overload - Lack of control Encounter stressors - Role conflicts - Issue conflicts - Action conflicts Situational stressors - Unfavourable working conditions - Rapid change Anticipatory stressors - Unpleasant expectations - Fear Management Strategies for Eliminating Stressors find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Time - Effective time management - Efficient time management Encounter - Building community - Contributing - Emotional and social intelligence Situational - Work redesign Anticipatory - Goal setting - Small wins Four Main Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence: 1. An accurate perception of others▯ emotional and behavioural responses 2. The ability to cognitively and emotionally understand and relate to others▯ responses 3. Social knowledge, or an awareness of what is appropriate social behaviour 4. Social problem solving or the ability to manage interpersonal difficulties  Skill variety: the opportunity to use multiple skills in performing work  Task identity: the opportunity to complete a whole task  Task significance: the opportunity to see the impact of the work being performed  Autonomy: the opportunity to choose how and when the work will be done  Feedback: the opportunity to receive information on the success of task accomplishment  Resiliency: one▯s capacity to cope with stress  Life balance: the development of resiliency in all areas of one▯s life in order to handle stress that cannot be eliminated  Reframing: stress-reduction technique of redefining a situation as manageable  Muscle relaxation: technique of relaxation by easing the tension in successive muscle groups  Deep breathing: relaxation technique of taking several successive, slow deep breaths, then exhaling completely  Imagery and fantasy:  Rehearsal: relaxation technique of trying out stressful scenarios and alternative reactions Chapter 3: Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively (p. 141 – 171) A Model of Problem Solving 1. Define the problem 2. Generate alternative solutions 3. Evaluate and select an alternative 4. Implement and follow up on the solution  Imagination: the creation of new ideas, breakthroughs, and radical approaches to problem solving  Improvement creativity: the pursuit of incremental improvements on existing ideas find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Investment creativity: the pursuit of rapid goal achievement and competitiveness  Incubation creativity: the pursuit of creativity through teamwork, involvement, and coordination among individuals  Conceptual blocks: mental obstacles that constrain the way problems are defined, and limit the number of alternative solutions that might otherwise be considered Conceptual Blocks That Inhibit Creative Problem Solving 1. Constancy - Vertical thinking: defining a problem in only one way without considering alternative views - One thinking language: not using more than one language to define and assess the problem 2. Commitment - Stereotyping based on past experience: present problems are seen only as the variations of past problems - Ignoring commonalities: failing to perceive commonalities among elements that initially appear to be different 3. Compression - Distinguishing figure from ground: not filtering out irrelevant information or finding needed information - Artificial constraints: defining the boundaries of a problem too narrowly 4. Complacency - Noninquisitiveness: not asking questions - Nonthinking: a bias toward activity in place of mental work  Constancy: the conceptual block that results from using only one way to look at a problem – to approach, define, describe or solve it  Vertical thinking: defining a problem in a single way and then pursuing that definition without deviation until a solution is reached  Thinking language: the various ways in which a problem can be considered, from verbal to nonverbal or symbolic languages as well as through sensory and visual imagery  Analytical problem solving: the method of solving problems that involves four steps o Defining the problem o Generating alternative solutions o Evaluating and selecting an alternative o Implementing and following up on the solution  Commitment: the conceptual block that results when an individual endorses a particular point of view, definition or solution  Ignoring commonalities: a manifestation of the commitment block – the failure to identify similarities among seemingly disparate situations or data  Perceptual stereotyping: defining a problem by using preconceptions based on past experience, thus preventing the problem from being viewed in novel ways find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Compression: the conceptual block that results from an individual▯s looking at a problem too narrowly, screening out too much relevant data, or making assumptions that inhibit solving the problem  Complacency: the conceptual block that occurs not because of poor thinking habits or inappropriate assumptions but because of fear, ignorance, self-satisfaction or mental laziness  Left-hemisphere thinking: brain activity concerned with logical, analytic, linear or sequential tasks  Right-hemisphere thinking:  Ambidextrous thinking: the use of both the left and right sides of the brain, indicative of the most creative problem solvers  Creative problem solving: a method of solving problems that involves four stages: preparation, incubation, illumination and verification  Preparation stage: a stage in creative thought that includes gathering data, defining the problem, generating alternatives, and consciously examining all available information  Incubation stage: an early stage in creative thought in which mostly unconscious mental activity combines unrelated thoughts in pursuit of a solution to a problem  Illumination stage: in creative thought, the third stage, which occurs when an insight is recognized and a creative solution is articulated  Verification stage: the final stage in creative thought in which the creative solution is evaluated relative to some standard of acceptability  Synectics: a technique for improving creative problem solving by putting something you don▯t know in terms of something you do know  Personal analogies: recommended as part of Synectics, whereby individuals try to identify themselves as part of the problem, asking the question ▯if ) were the problem, what would I like? What would satisfy me?▯  Direct analogies: a Synectic problem-solving technique in which individuals apply facts, technology and previous experience to solving a problem  Symbolic analogies: symbols or images that are imposed on the problem; recommended as part of Synectics  Fantasy analogies: a synetic problem-solving technique in which individuals ask, ▯in my wildest dreams, how would ) wish the problem to be resolved?▯  SCAMPER: Substitution, combination, adaptation, modification, putting to other uses, elimination and rearrangement  Janusian thinking: thinking contradictory thoughts at the same time; conceiving two opposing ideas to be true concurrently  Fluency of thought: the number of ideas or concepts produced in a given length of time  Flexibility of thought: the diversity of ideas or concepts generated  Brainstorming: a technique designed to help people solve problems by generating alternative solutions without prematurely evaluating and rejecting them  Subdivision: the breaking part of a problem into smaller parts  Morphological synthesis: a four-step process intended to expand the number of creative alternatives available for solving a problem. It involves combining the different attributes of a problem together in unique ways find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Relational algorithm: a blockbusting technique for combining unrelated attributes in problem solving by connecting words to force a relationship between two elements in a problem  Specific orientation: an emphasis on separating work, family and personal roles in a society, used in contrast to diffusion orientation. One of the key dimensions that identifies international cultural differences  Groupthink: one of the pitfalls in group decision making that occurs when the pressure to reach consensus interferes with critical thinking. When the leader or the majority appear to prefer a particular solution, holders of dissenting views are reluctant to speak out  Idea champion: the person who comes up with creative problem solutions  Sponsor/mentor: person who helps provide the resources, environment and encouragement for the idea champion to work on his idea  Rule breaker: person who goes beyond organizational boundaries and barriers to ensure success of the creative solution Chapter 4: Building Relationships by Communicating Supportively (p. 190-215)  Positive interpersonal relationships:  Supportive communication: seeks to preserve or enhance a positive relationship between you and another person while still addressing a problem, giving negative feedback or tackling a difficult issue  Coaching: o ▯) can help you do this better▯  Counseling: o ▯) can help you recognize that a problem exists▯  Defensiveness: an emotional and physical state in which a person is agitated, estranged, confused and inclined to strike out  Disconfirmation: occurs when people feel put down, ineffectual, or insignificant because of the communication  Congruence: what is communicated, verbally and nonverbally, matches exactly what you are thinking and feeling, being authentic and honest  Incongruence: mismatch between what you think or feel and what you communicate or mismatch between what you are experiencing and what you are aware of  Evaluative communication: makes a judgement or places a label on other individuals or on their behaviour  Descriptive communication: allows a person to be congruent and authentic as well as being helpful o 1. Describe objectively the event, behaviour or circumstance (ex. Three clients have complained to me this week) o 2. Focus on the behaviour and your reaction, not on the other person▯s attributes (ex. )▯m worried because each client has threatened to take business elsewhere▯ o 3. Focus on solutions (ex. We need both to win back their confidence)  Validating communication: helps people feel recognized, understood, accepted, and valued find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Invalidating: communication that arouses negative feelings about self-worth, identity and relationships to others  Superiority-oriented communication: can take the form of ▯put-downs▯, in which others are made to look bad so that you look good ▯▯one-upmanship▯)  Rigidity in communication: a second major type of invalidation, communication is portrayed as absolute, unequivocal, or unquestionable ▯▯know-it-all▯▯  Indifference: communicated when the other person▯s existence or importance is not acknowledged, treating others as if they are not even present, ignoring them  Imperviousness: means that the communicator does not acknowledge the feelings or opinions of the other person, labelling them illegitimate or ignorant  Respectful, egalitarian communication: the opposite of superiority-oriented communication, helps subordinates to feel that they have a stake in identifying problems and resolving them by communicating them in an egalitarian stance  Flexibility in communication: refers to your willingness to communicate that the other person may possess additional data and other alternatives that may make a contribution to the problem solving or to the relationship  Two-way communication: an implied result of respectfulness and flexibility , communicates the message that the other person is valued, perquisite for building collaboration and teamwork  Conjunctive communication: connected to previous messages in some way, flows smoothly  Disjunctive communication: disconnected from what was stated before  Owned communication: taking responsibility for your statements and acknowledging that the source of the ideas is yourself and not another person or group  Disowned communication: suggested when you use third person or first-person-plural words ▯▯we think▯, ▯they said▯, ▯one might say▯▯  Advising response: provides direction, evaluation, personal opinion, or instructions  Deflecting response: switches the focus from the communicator▯s problem to one you select  Probing response: asks a question about what the other person just aid or about the problem he or she has shared  Elaboration probe: used when the other person▯s statement does not contain enough information or part of the message is not understood ▯ex. ▯can you tell me more about that?▯▯  Clarification probe: used when the message is not clear or is ambiguous ▯ex. ▯what do you mean by that?▯▯  Repetition probe: works best when the communicator is avoiding a topic, hasn▯t answered a previous question, or a previous statement is unclear (ex. ▯once again, what do you think about this?▯▯  Reflection probe: most effective when the communicator is encouraged to keep pursuing the same topic in greater depth ▯ex. ▯so, you are saying that you feel discouraged?▯▯  Reflecting response: purpose is to mirror back to the communicator the message you heard and to communicate understanding and acceptance of the person find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Personal management interview (PMI) program: program for applying supportive communication and subordinates with development and feedback opportunities find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Chapter 5: Gaining Power and Influence (p. 228-249)  Expertise: cognitive ability resulting from formal training and education or from on-the- job experience; an important source of power in a technological society  Attraction: also referred to as personal attraction, ▯likability▯ stemming from agreeable behaviour and attractive physical appearance  Effort: an important source of power suggesting personal commitment  Legitimacy: conformity with an organization’s value system and practices, which increases one’s acceptance and thus one’s influence in that organization  Centrality: the attribute of a position in which the occupant is a key member of informal networks of task-related and interpersonal relationships  Structural holes: a gap in your personal network such that two people to whom you are connected are not connected to each other  Flexibility: the freedom to exercise one’s judgment – an important prerequisite for gaining power in a position – particularly in tasks that are high in variety and novelty  Proactive personality: a dispositional tendency to effect change in one’s environment  Visibility: the power-enhancing attribute of a position that can usually be measured by the number of influential people one interacts with in the organization  Relevance: the characteristic of a position whose tasks relate most closely to the dominant competitive goals of an organization and therefore enhance the power of the occupant  Retribution: an influence strategy that involves a threat – the denial of expected rewards or the imposition of punishment. It usually triggers an aversive response in the subordinate and the breakdown of the interpersonal relationship  Reciprocity: an influence strategy through which a manager uses bargaining as a tool for exacting a subordinate’s compliance. This approach operates on the principle of self- interest and respect for the value of the interpersonal relationship  Reason: the influence strategy that relies on persuasion and appeals to rational consideration of the inherent merits of the request in order to gain compliance. It is explicit and direct, not manipulative Neutralizing retribution strategies used by others - Use countervailing power to shift dependence to interdependence - Confront the exploiting individual directly - Actively resist Neutralizing reciprocity strategies by others - Examine the intent of any gift or favour-giving activity - Confront individuals who are using manipulative bargaining tactics - Refuse to bargain with individuals who use high-pressure tactics Neutralizing reason strategies by others - Explain the adverse effects of compliance on performance - Defend your personal rights - Firmly refuse to comply with the request find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Chapter 6: Motivating Others (p. 264-288) Performance = Ability x Motivation (Effort)  Performance: the product of ability multiplied by motivation  Ability: the product of aptitude multiplied by training and opportunity  Motivation: a combination of desire and commitment demonstrated by effort - Taking refuge in a specialty: managers show signs of insufficient ability when instead of managing they retreat to their technical specialty - Focusing on past performance: measuring one’s value to the organization in terms of past performance or on the basis of former standards - Exaggerating aspects of the leadership role: managers who have lost confidence in their ability tend to be very defensive  Resupplying: managerial option for overcoming an employee’s lack of ability problem that focuses on supplying the support needed to do the job  Retraining: a management tool for overcoming the problem of an employee’s poor performance, especially needed in rapidly changing technical work environments  Refitting: adapting the requirements of a job to an employee’s abilities in order to improve poor performance  Reassigning: moving the poor performer to a position more consonant with his or her skill level and aptitude  Release: dismissing an employee from the organization after all other tools for improving performance has failed  Indulging: a manager’s emphasis on employee satisfaction to the exclusion of employee performance; the resulting country club atmosphere hinders productivity  Imposing: a manager’s exploitation of employees by assigning tasks with the sole emphasis on performance and without regard to their job satisfaction – usually disastrous in the long term  Ignoring: a manager’s neglect of both the performance and the satisfaction of employees. Such a lack of effective leadership can paralyze a work unit  Integrating: a motivation strategy that emphasizes job performance and job satisfaction equally – a challenging strategy for a manager to implement, but one that can result in both high productivity and high morale of employees  Goal setting: the foundation of an effective motivational program, which consists of o Including employees in the goal setting process o Setting specific, consistent and challenging goals o Providing feedback  Goal-setting process: the critical consideration is that goals must be understood and accepted if they are to be effective  Goal characteristics: effective goals are specific, consistent and appropriately challenging  Specific goals: goals that are measurable, unambiguous and behavioural find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Consistent goals: one of the factors affecting the motivating potential of stated goals – it is difficult to pursue goals that are inconsistent or incompatible  Appropriately challenging goals: one of the factors affecting the motivating potential of stated goals – hard goals tend to be
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