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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2100
Sara Mann

Section 1 1 What is the difference between internal and external attribution Given an example of a behavior and how a manager decides to attribute that behavior to internal or external factorsInternal and External Attributions Internal attribution is saying the cause for behavior is something that is internal to the person like their personality feelings or abilities external attribution is said the cause for behavior is something that is external to the person due to situational behaviors or pressure from others An example of this would be if a customer at a coffee shop was unhappy with their coffee if the manager believed that someone who made the coffee made it wrong and didnt know how to make it or was having a bad day and made a mistake they are making an internal attribution If they think that the coffee or milk went bad and thats why it tasted wrong then they are making an external attribution Perception is what you feel based on your experiences at the time You recognize something in a situation and it registers in your brain An attribution is assigning motives to situationsbehaviours Internal attribution is when the cause or motives of the situation are due to internal factorsex you were late because you are lazy perceptions that outcomes are due to the person rather than situation or environment External attribution is when the causes or motives of the situation are due to external factors ex late bus perceptions that outcomes are due to situation or environment rather than the personAttribution Cues be careful of self serving bias and fundamental attribution error When attributing an employees behaviour to internal or external causes we should ask these questionsConsistency Cues Does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistencyConsensus Cues Do most people engage in the behaviour or is it unique to this personDistinctiveness Cues Does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations or is it distinctive to one situation2 Explain the three biases that can occur with attribution and give an example of eachThree biases that can occur with attribution biases on pg 28Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviours at the expense of situational explanationsThe tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgements about the behaviour of othersEx its all your fault you were late because you are lazy and didnt wake up earlySelfServing Bias Attributing our success to internal factors and our failures to external factorsThe tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting blame for failures on external factorsEx passing the class and thinking it was all because you studied hard not because the professor was great or the class material was easy Ex failing the class and thinking that it was unfair the material wasnt taught properlyActorObserver Effect Propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actors behaviour differentlyThe tendency to attribute our own behavior mainly to situational causes but the behavior of others mainly to internal dispositional causesPerceptual Errors pg 2630 Primacy reliance on early first impressions Recency most recent information dominated perceptions Implicit Personality Theories Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together ex you may believe that hard working people are also honest Halo one trait forms a general impression Projectionsimilar to me believing other people are similar to you and therefore liking them better Stereotyping tendency to generalize about people in a social category and ignore variations among themDifference between perceptual Errors and Attributional Errors Perceptual errors are errors that occur when we perceive something happening in the workplace halo effect similar to me primacy recency perceiving it Attributional Errors is taking what we perceive and then assigning motives and causes to that behaviour fundamental attribution error and self serving bias3 Suppose an employee performs poorly on an assigned project Discuss the attribution process that this persons manager will use to form judgements about his poor performancethe manager is most likely to employ the fundamental attribution error by overestimating internal factors that affected the employees performance 4 Assume you need to give Dave his performance review this week His job performance has been low on the job in the past three months a Explain how you would decide to attribute his behaviour to internal or external factors I would determine whether Dave is facing any external factors or if it is due to internal factors that he cannot live up to his job or not I would also investigate to see if Daves performance has always been poor and just overlooked or if it is just recent in the past three monthsb Do you think that Dave is more likely to attribute his behaviour to internal or external factors Give examples of external factorsDue to the theory of the selfserving bias Dave is more likely to attribute his poor performance to external factors rather than internal factorsc Since Dave is not performing highly in the job would you assume that he is not satisfied in his job as well Most typical managers would blame Daves internal factors and assume that Dave is lazy and doesnt like working and therefore not happy or satisfied with his job I however would at least consider external factors that could possibly be affecting Dave and his performance at work Just because his performance is poor doesnt necessarily mean that he is unsatisfied with his jobd Do you think that having a high level of emotional intelligence would help you in being more effective in this type of performance appraisal where negative feedback will be givenHaving a high level of emotional intelligence would help in being more effective in this type of performance appraisal due to the fact that you would be able to consider external factors as well as internal factors equally when giving a performance appraisal It would also allow a manager to take into consideration whether he has high or low selfesteem which could affect his motivation at workSomeone with a high level of EI OR EQ is selfaware can control hisher impulses is self motivated and demonstrates empathy and social awarenesse What errors should you keep in mind when conducting his performance appraisal ex what are some errors managers typically make when conducting performance appraisals Some things to consider when conducting a performance appraisal is that everyone is different and to approach everyone in a different manner As a manger you have to be able to understand different personalities and behaviours and how well they take their performance appraisal Job satisfaction is not a strong predictor of job performance and therefore managers shouldnt assume that and employees behaviour or personality as an internal factor of poor performance f How you handle this performance issue is critical in determining whether or not Dave will improve his performance As his manager how could you use operant learning theory to try to improve his performance As his manager I would create an incentive program to motivate Dave and implement punishments for slacking to discourage low job performance
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