HROB 2100 midterm notes.doc

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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2100
Tom Medcof

HROB 2100 midterm notes Chapter 1: An Organization: A structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed-upon objectives. Organizational Behaviour: Bureaucracy: Max Weber’s idea type of organization. • Strict chain of command • Detailed rules, regulations, and procedures • High specialization • Centralization of power at the top of the organization Henri Fayol’s Principles: • A division of labour should be used because it allows people to specialize, doing only what they do best • Managers should have authority over subordinates • Lines of authority should be uninterrupted. A clear chain of command should connect top management to the lowest-level employee • Clearly defined unity of command, employees should be receiving orders from only one other person so as to avoid confusion • Subordinates should be allowed to formulate and implement their own plans Human Relations Movement (Critique of Bureaucracy and other traditional organizational methods) Hawthorne study: Productivity linked to social conditions of work • Attention from management can motivate/make employees feel special • Attention can decrease productivity if employees are unsure of reason, suspect negative outcome from process Attention was called against certain dysfunctional aspects of classical management and bureaucracy: • Employees alienation • Limits to innovation and adaptation • Resistance to change • Minimum acceptable level of performance • Employees lose sight of the overall goals of the organization Organizational Behaviour Anchors -Contingency: • A particular action may have different consequences in different situations • Need to diagnose the situation and select best strategy under those conditions -Multiple levels of analysis: • Individual, team, organizational level of analysis • OB topics usually relevant at all three levels of analysis Shifting Paradigms -Globalization: Effects of globalization on organizations • New structures • Increasing competitive pressures, intensification -Diversity • Surface Level (race, ethnicity, gender, age) • Deep Level (Personalities, religions and beliefs, values, and attitudes) -Different Workforce Expectations • Work/Life Balance • Technology (Virtual teams/work) • Demise of “command and control”, empowerment - Performance - Competitive Advantage • Resource based View of the Firm (Culture, People, Responsibility) - Training and Retention - Legal Compliance • Charter of Rights and Freedoms • Human Rights Legislation (Discrimination, Employment equity, Hostile work environment, Emplyement Standards Legislation Chapter 2: Personality, Perception and Emotions Personality: The unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviour, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics - External traits – Observable behaviours - Internal traits – Thoughts, values, etc inferred from behaviours Nature vs. Nurture of Personality • Heredity explains about half of behavioural tendencies and 30% of temperament preferences • Minnesota studies of twins, including those separated at birth, very similar behaviour patterns • Nurture also counts – Socialization, life experiences, learning • Personality stabilizes over time The BIG FIVE Taxonomy The Five Factor Model of Personality -CANOE: • Conscientiousness • Agreeableness • Neuroticism • Openness to Experience • Extraversion Conscientiousness (C) - dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, and persevering. • Conscientious employees prioritize accomplishment striving, which reflects a strong desire to accomplish task-related goals as a means of expressing personality Agreeableness (A) – warm, kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, and courteous. • Prioritize communion striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing personality • Agreeable people focus on “getting along”, not necessarily “getting ahead” Neuroticism (N) – nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, jealous, unstable… NOT calm, steady, relaxed, at ease, secure contented Openness to Experience (O) – curious, imaginative, creative, complex, `refined, and sophisticated • Also called “inquisitiveness” or “intellectualness” or even “Cultured” • Highly open individuals are more likely to migrate into artistic and scientific fields Extraversion (E) – talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant. • Easiest to judge in zero acquaintance situations (Situations in which two people have only just met) • Prioritize status striving, wich reflects a strong desire to obtain power and influence withhin a social structure as a means of expressing personality Other Personality Attributes: • Core Self-Evaluation • Machiavellianism • Narcissism • Self-Monitoring • Risk Propensity • Type A and B Personality • Proactivity Perception : Selective Attention: • Maintaining a behavioural or cognitive set in the face of distracting or competing stimuli. Ex/ Cocktail party effect: Being in a noisy event filled with many conversations and distractions and being able to focus on one particular thing at a time, while tuning everything else out. • Characteristics of the object (size, intensity, motion, repetition, novelty) • Perceptual Context • Characteristics of the Perceiver (Attitudes, Expectations) Perceptual Organization/Interpretation Categorical Thinking • Mostly unconscious process of organizing people and things • Perceptual grouping principles - Closure – filling in missing pieces - Identifying trends - Similarity or proximity Mental Models • Broad world-views or ‘theories-in-use” • Helps us to quickly make sense of situations • May block recognition of new opportunities/perspectives Basic Biases in Person Perception • Primacy and Recency effects • Halo Effect • Contrast Effects • Projection • Stereotyping Attribution Process • Internal Attribution: Perception that person’s behaviour is due to motivation/ability rather than situation or fate • External Attribution: Perception that behaviour is due to situation or fate rather than the person Biases in Attribution • Fundamental Attribution Error: The tendency to overemphasize dis[otional (internal) explanations for behaviour at the expense of situation (external) explanations when judging others. To put simply, it is the tendency to judge someone based on circumstantial actions, when those actions don’t necessarily reflect the persons personality. • Self-serving bias: the tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures. Improving Perceptions • Empathy - Sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts, and situation of others - Cognitive and emotional component • Self-awareness - Awareness of you values, beliefs and prejudices - Emotional Intelligence Techniques for Reducing Perceptual Errors and Biases: • Using rating scales with more specific behavioural labels • Behavioural anchored rating scales give very specific behavioural examples of good, average, and poor performance • With such an aid, the rate my be less susceptible to perceptual errors Culture and Structure Culture: • Organizational Culture is a cognitive framework consisting of assumptions and values shared by organization members (ex/ A gang, or a cult) • An organization’s dominant culture is the distinctive, overarching “personality” of the organization, which reflects its core values • Subcultures are cultures existing within parts of organizations rather than entirely through them Basic Functions of Organizational Culture • Provides a sense of identity for its members • Increases commitment to the organization’s mission • Clarifies and reinforces standards and behaviour Organizational Culture: Creation and Maintenance • Factors contributing to the creation of an organization’s culture include: - Company Founders - Interaction with others in organization - Experience with the environment • Tools used to transmit an organization’s culture include: - Symbols - Stories - Jargon - Ceremonies - Statements of principle Organizational Socialization: The process by which individuals learn the values, expected behaviours, and social knowledge necessary to assume their roles in the organization Socialization: Learning and Adjustment • Learning Process: Newcomers make sense of the organization’s physical, social, and strategic/cultural dynamics • Adjustment Process: Newcomers need to adapt to their new work environment - Pre-arrival - Encounter - Metamorphosis Problems with Strong Cultures: 1) Barriers to Change: Culture content might be misaligned with the organization’s environment 2) Barrier’s to Diversity: Strong cultures suppress dissenting values from subcultures 3) Barrier to Merger’s and Acquisitions 4) Strong cultures may focus on mental model’s that could be limiting Structure: • Mechanistic - Narrow division of labour - Centralized decision making - Formalized work procedures - Many levels of hierarchy, short span of control Organic - Wide division of labour - Low formalization of work procedures - Few levels of administration - De-centralized decision making Determinants of Structure Strategy: Cost leader vs. Innovation/Differentiation Size: Large or Small Technology: Routineness vs. Non-routineness Environment: Static or uncertain Attitudes, Values and Diversity What Are Values? o Prefer certain states of affairs over others o What we consider good and bad o Motivational and very general o People tend to hold values structured around such factors as achievement, power, autonomy, conformity, tradition, and social welfare Cultural Differences in Values - There can be basic differences in work-related values across cultures (both organizational and national) - A lack of understanding of cross-cultural differences can cause foreign assignments to terminate early and business negotiations to fail Hofstede’s Study o Geert Hofstede: Four basic dimensions along which work-related values differed across cultures: - Power Distance - Uncertainty avoidance - Masculinity/femininity - Individualism/ Collectivism - + Long term vs. Short term orientation Power Distance:0 - The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members - In small power distance cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible, and power differences are downplayed Uncertainty Avoidance: - the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations - Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations, hard work, conformity, and security Masculinity/Femininity - Masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles, support the dominance of men, and stress economic performance - Feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality, and stress quality of life Individualism/Collectivism - Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy - Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan Long-term/ Short-term Orientation - Cultures with a long-term orientation stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status differences - Cultures with a short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social niceties Multiculturalism and Diversity Diversity Programs: - Strategic tool in the face of globalization - Represent diversity of workforce and client base - Talent acquisition and recruitment -Broaden pool - Underutilization What Are Attitudes? - A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond with consistency to some specific object, situation person, or category of people - Evaluations directed toward specific targets - More specific than values - Job Satisfaction - Organizational Commitment What is Job Satisfaction? - A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs - Facet satisfaction refers to the tendency for an employee to b more or less satisfied with various facets of the job -The work itself -Compensation -Career Opportunities -Satisfaction with Supervisors -Satisfaction with Co-workers Emotional Labour - In some jobs, employees must exaggerate positive emotions while in others they must suppress negative emotions - All jobs have their implicit display rules, however, service roles are especially laden with them - Consequences of Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction has a number of consequences: o Absence from work o Turnover o Performance o Organizational citizenship behaviour o Customer satisfaction and profit What is Organizational Commitment? - Strength of the linkage between an employee and an organization - Implications for Turnover and Performance - Three different types of organizational commitment - Affective Commitment - Continuance Commitment
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