HROB Midterm Exam Review.docx

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University of Guelph
Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2100

HROB Midterm Exam Review PERPECTUAL ERRORS 1. Primacy: Reliance on early, first impressions 2. Recency: Most recent information dominates perceptions 3. Implicit Personality Theories: Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together - E.g. you may believe that hardworking people are also honest - E.g. you may believe that your formal boss is insensitive 4. Halo: one trait forms a general impression 5. Projection: believing other people are similar to you 6. Stereotyping : tendency to generalize about people in a social category and ignore variations among them ATTRIBUTION Attribution – the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviours 1. Internal Attribution (Dispositional Attributions): Perception that outcomes are due to personality or intellect rather than situation or environment 2. External Attribution (Situational Attributions): Perception that outcomes are due to situation or environment rather than the person - E.g. If one of your employees does a great job, is it because they have high capabilities or because you gave them great instructions? Attribution Cues – when attributing an employee’s behaviour to internal or external causes, we should ask these questions. - Consistency Cues (Does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistency?) - Consensus Cues (Do most people engage in the behaviour or are they unique to this person?) - Distinctiveness Cues (Does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations, or is it distinctive to one situation?) Biases in Attribution - Fundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations - Self-Serving Bias: attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors - Actor-Observer Effect: Propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour differently PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - Personality used to be considered to be an important determinant of motivation, attitudes, performance and leadership - Now, more of an interactionist approach is accepted - OB is a function of both disposition and the situation - Therefore, important to put the right individual in the right job, group or org’n and exposing difft ees to difft leadership styles The “Big Five” basic, general dimensions that describe personality: (dimensions are independent) 1. Extraversion: outgoing vs shy 2. Emotional Stability: emotional control 3. Agreeableness: friendly & approachable 4. Conscientiousness: responsible and achievement oriented 5. Openness to experience: thinks flexibly; receptive to new ideas What behaviours in the workplace have the “Big 5” been shown to be linked to? 1. Job Performance 2. Motivation 3. Absenteeism 4. Job Satisfaction 5. Career Success Personality Characteristics - Locus of Control: a set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces. (Impacts perceptions of rewards, job satisfaction, stress, career planning). - Positive and Negative Affectivity: Propensity to view the world including oneself and others in a positive or negative light. - Self-monitoring: Observe and regulate how one appears and behaves in social settings and relationships o High self-monitors gravitate towards jobs that require some degree of role- playing and perform well in occupations that call for flexibility o Also tend to be more involved in their jobs, higher performers, and more likely to emerge as leaders o However, experience more stress and less commitment - Self-esteem: Degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation o Behavioral plasticity theory: Those with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self- esteem ATTITUDE Attitudes have a fairly stable tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person or category of people. Attitudes are much more specific than values (E.g. you could value working quite highly and yet dislike your current job). Job Satisfaction – A collective of attitudes that workers have about their jobs What determines job satisfaction? 1. Discrepancy between job outcomes wanted and obtained 2. Fairness 3. Disposition 4. Mood & Emotion Key contributors - Mentally stimulating work - Adequate compensation - Career opportunities - Coworkers Consequences - Absenteeism - Turnover - Satisfaction is associated with performance, but depends on so many other factors - OCB Job Performance OCB: - Voluntary - Spontaneous - Contributes to organization effectiveness - Not formally rewarded Organizational Commitment – Strength of linkage between an employee and the organization 1. Affective: Because you “want to” (based on identification and involvement with an org) 2. Continuance: Because you “have to” (based on costs incurred with leaving the org) 3. Normative: Because you “should” (based on feeling of obligation) Fairness/ Justice 1. Procedural Fairness: Fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable 2. Interactional Fairness: Fairness that occurs when people feel they have received r
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