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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2100
Scott Brandon

HROB FINAL EXAM CHAPTER SUMMARIES HROB Chapter 1Regulation legally binding rules established by the special regulatory bodies created to enforce compliance with the law and aid in interpretationemploymentlabour standards legislation laws present in every Canadian jurisdiction that establish minimum employee entitlements and set a limit on the maximum number of hours of work permitted per day or weekfundamental rights and freedoms 1 freedom of conscience and religion 2 freedom of thought belief opinion and expression including the press and other media of communication 3 freedom of peaceful assembly 4 freedom of associationdiscrimination a distinction exclusion or preference based on one of the prohibited grounds that has the effect of nullifying or impacting the right if a person to full and equal recognition and exercise of his or her human rights and freedomsunintentionalconstructivesystemic discriminationdiscrimination that is embedded in policies and practices that appear neutral on the surface and are implemented impartially but have an adverse impact on specific groups of people for reasons that are not job related or required for the safe and efficient operation of the businessreasonable accommodation the adjustment of employment policies and practices that an employer may be expected to make so that no individual is denied benefits disadvantaged in employment or prevented from carrying out the essential components of a job because of grounds prohibited in human rights legislationundue hardship the point to which employers are expected to accommodate under human rights legislative requirementsbona fide occupational requirement BFOR a justifiable reason for discrimination based on business necessity that is required for the safe and efficient operation of the organization or a requirement that can be clearly defended as intrinsically required y the tasks an employee is expected to performdiscrimination on the basis of race and colour is illegal in every Canadian jurisdictionrace and colourdiscrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is prohibited in all jurisdictionssexual orientationdiscrimination on the basis of religion can take many forms in Canadas multicultural societyreligiondiscrimination on the basis of family status are evolvingfamily statusharassment unwelcome behaviour that demeans humiliates or embarrasses a person and that a reasonable person should have known would be unwelcomesexual harassmentemployer responsibility protecting employees from harassment is part of an employers responsibility to provide a safe and healthy working environmentharassment policies to reduce liability employers should establish sound harassment policies communicate such policies to all employees enforce the policies in a fair and consistent manner and take an active role in maintaining a working environment that is free of harassmentthe plight of the four designated groups women aboriginals people with disabilities visibleminoritiesEEPemployment equity programstep 1 seniormanagement commitment and support2 data collection and analysis3 employment system review4 plan development5 implementation6 monitoring evaluating and revisingdiversity managementactivities designed to integrate all members of an organizations multicultural workforce and use their diversity to enhance the firms effectivenessCreating an inclusive environment top management commitmentintegration of diversity initiatives and talent managementdiversity training programssupport groupscritical relationship networksopen dialoguemanagement responsibility and accountabilityconclusion for organizations to reap the benefits of a diverse workforce must make diversity an essential element of their operations creating strong links btw diversity and corporate strategiesChapter 2 Perception Personality and EmotionsPerception DefinedPerception The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment Perception is important to the study of OB because peoples behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is not on reality itself Factors Influencing PerceptionA number of factors affect perception these factors are the perciever the target and the situationThe PerceiverWhen the perciever looks at a target and attempts to interpret what they see the interpretation is influenced by the perceivers personal characteristics These characteristics include a persons attitudes personality motives interests past experiences and expectations The TargetA targets characteristics also affect what is perceived For example loud people are more likely to get noticed than quiet people Novelty motion sounds size and other characteristics of a target shape the way we see it The SituationThe time at which we see an object or event can influence attention as can location light heat or any number of situational factors Perceptual ErrorsSome of the errors that distort the perception process are attribution theory selective perception halo effect contrast effects projection and stereotyping Attribution TheoryAttribution Theory is the theory that when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by and individual we attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused oInternally caused behaviour is believed to be under the personal control of the individual oExternally caused behaviour is believed to result from outside causes In trying to determine if behaviour is internally or externally caused we rely on three rules about behaviour 1 distinctiveness 2 consensus and 3 consistencyDistinctivenessDistinctiveness A behavioural rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations oIs the students always under performing Or is the students behaviour in one situation uncharacteristic of behaviour usually shown in other situations If the behaviour is unusual then the observer is likely to make an external attribution If it is not unusual the observer will probably judge it as internally caused ConsensusConsensus A behavioural rule that considers if everyone faced with a similar situation responds in the same way If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way we can say the behaviour shows consensus From an attribution perspective if consensus is high you would be expected to give an external attribution to the situation ConsistencyConsistency A behavioural rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over timeoIf a student is usually on time for class being 10 minutes late will be perceived differently from the way it is when the student is routinely lateHow Attributions Get DistortedOne of the more interesting findings from attribution theory is that there are errors or biases that distort attributions Fundamental attribution error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgements about the behaviour of othersSelfserving bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own success to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors Selective Perception
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