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MBG 1000 Study Guide - Missense Mutation, Frameshift Mutation, Nonsense Mutation


Department
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Course Code
MBG 1000
Professor
Georgevander Merwe

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Definitions for Genetics and Society
Tolerance: the power of enduring or resisting the action of a drug, poison, etc.; a tolerance to antibiotics; the
lack of or low levels of immune response to transplanted tissue or other foreign substance that is normally
immunogenic
Transcription: manufacturing RNA from DNA
Translation: assembly of an amino acid chain according to the sequence of base triplets in a molecule of
mRNA
Gene: a sequence of DNA that instructs a cell to produce a particular protein
Chromatin: DNA and its associated proteins
Promoter: a control sequence near the start of a gene
Genome: the complete set of genetic instructions in the cells of a particular type of organism
Exon: part of a gene that encodes amino acids
Intron: part of the gene that is transcribed but is excised from the mRNA before translation into protein
Codon: a continuous triplet of mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid
Anticodon: a three-base sequence on one loop of a transfer RNA molecule that is complementary to an
mRNA codon, and joins to the appropriate amino acid and it mRNA
Polysome: a group of ribosomes joined by a molecule of messenger RNA containing a portion of the genetic
code that is to be translated; polysomes are found in the cytoplasm during protein synthesis
Chaperone: a protein that binds a polypeptide and guides folding
Proteasome: a multiprotein structure in a cell shaped like a barrel through which misfolded proteins pass
and are folded or dismantled
Mutant: an allele that differs from the normal or most common allele in a population that alters the phenotype
Spontaneous Mutation: a genetic change that results from mispairing when the replication machinery
encounters a base in its rare tautomeric form
Mutagen: a substance that changes, adds or delete a DNA base
Carcinogen: a substance that cause cancer
Pseudogene: a gene that does not encode protein, but whose sequence closely resembles that of a coding
gene
Synonymous codons: DNA triplets that specify the same amino acid
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