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[MBG 2400] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (31 pages long)


Department
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Course Code
MBG 2400
Professor
Andrew Robinson
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
MBG 2400
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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MBG 2400 Study Notes
Lecture 1: Intro to Plant and Animal Genetics
Evolutionary Trends in the Clades Viridiplantae
Red Algae: separated from rest by lack of chloroplast containing chlorophyll a & b, B-carotene
and store starch in plastid, oxygenic photoautotrophs
1. Ability to Live on Land: separates out the green algae species
- Do not contain waterproof cuticle + stromata, multicellular reproductive structures,
alternation of generations, retention of embryo
2. Vascular Tissues: separates out the mosses
- Do not contain xylem & phloem with lignin (larger sporophytes)
3. Seed: separates out the monilophytes (ferns etc)
- Do not have seed coat, dispersal mechanisms, or pollen & enhanced fertilizations
4. Flowers: separates the gymnosperms & angiosperms (flower bearing plants)
- Angiosperms have enhanced pollination, seed protected in ovary, fruit dispersal
Meiosis & Recombination
Recombination: the production of gene combinations not found in parents by:
1. Assortment of non-homologous chromosomes &
2. Crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meisosis
- For linked genes: frequency of recombination used to estimate genetic map distance
Meiotic Recombination: any meiotic process that generates a haploid product with a genotype
that differs fro the 2 parets’ haploid geotpes; geerates a recombinant
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Chromosomal Theory of Heredity
1. Sperm/egg cells provide only bridge between generations; heredity carried by them
2. Sperm lose nearly all their cytoplasm but contain a nucleus
3. Chromosomes: only part of nucleus equally divided during cell division
4. Chromosomes occur in pairs; so do genes
. Medel’s First Priciple of Segregatio: chromosomes separate at meiosis, each pair goes to
different cells and genes also segregate during gamete formation
. Medel’s Secod Priciple of Idepedet Assortet: members of chromosomal pair
segregate independently of eachother (so do genes)
Principle of Segregation Meiosis 1
- Segregation: separation of paternal and maternal chromosomes from eachother at meiosis;
separation of alleles from eachother in heterozygotes; occurrence of difference phenotypes
among offspring resulting from chromosome or allele separation in their heterozygous parents:
Medel’s st Principle of Segregation
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