MBG 2400 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Linkage Disequilibrium, Allele Frequency, Panmixia

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Each inherited characteristic, an organism has 2 alleles ~ 1 from each parent. Sperm, egg carry only one allele since allelic pairs segregate from each other during production of gametes. 2 alleles are different, one is expressed and other is masked. Paired condition is restored by random fusion of gametes at fertilization. A locus (a location on a chromosome) with 2 alleles in diploid organisms. B(cid:271): i(cid:374) a(cid:374) o(cid:396)ga(cid:374)is(cid:373)"s dna, (cid:396)ep(cid:396)ese(cid:374)ts a difference (allele or polymorphism) in a dna sequence at a lo(cid:272)atio(cid:374) i(cid:374) the o(cid:396)ga(cid:374)is(cid:373)"s ge(cid:374)o(cid:373)e. Dual strand composition of dna makes it convenient to use letter of the alphabet and capitalize one (often the dominant is assumed) Restriction endonuclease cleaves dna at specific location of an allele or polymorphism. Rule of multiplication: chance of gg in f2 = x = . Rule of addition: chance of gg orgg in f2 = ( )( ) + ( ) ( ) = .

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