MCS 2020 Final: Chapters 1-12

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Chapter 1: Information Systems and You
What is an Information System?
A group of components that interact to produce information
Not all information systems require computerization
oEx. a library system organized by Dewey Decimal
Five-component framework of an information system: computer hardware,
software, data, procedures and people
Hardware: the electronic components and associated gadgetry that constitute a
computer system
Software: programs or applications that run, or operate, on computer systems
Data: the basic building blocks of information, such as facts or operations
Procedures: instructions or processes that you follow to achieve your desired
objective; can be formal and documented or less detailed, informal instructions
People: actors who want to achieve a particular outcome by interacting with the
system
What is MIS?
Management information systems comprise the development and use of
information systems that help organizations achieve their goals and objectives
Three key elements: development and use, information systems, and goals and
objectives
Development and use of IS- IS are designed and created by business analysts
and systems designers at the request of senior managers or entrepreneurs
Achieving business goals and objectives- IS are found in almost every type of
enterprise, social, and non-profit organizations, as well as governments of all
levels.
How Does an IS Differ from IT?
Information technology: methods, inventions, standards and products
oRefers to raw technology and only concerns the hardware, software and
data components
IT by itself will not help an organization achieve its goals and objectives
How Important Are Information Systems to Our Economy?
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Industry Canada is responsible for categorizing sectors and collecting information
about them
Information and Communications Technology Sector: most closely related to the
use of IS in Canada; provides products and services that other industries such as
retail, manufacturing, insurance, and banking rely on to get their work done
Most of the employment gains have occurred in the software and computer-
services industries
oThere will likely be more jobs in the future in “service” industries
How Do Successful Business Professionals Use IS?
There is a need for individuals with a core set of skills including:
oTechnical skills
oSpecific technology and industry experience
oSatisfactory communication and other business skills
Three occupations with above-average growth rates:
oManager, computer and information systems
oInformation systems analysts and consultants
oUser-support technicians
Successful business professionals recognize they can gain a professional
advantage by adding some technical knowledge to their business skills
To remain productive, organizations in the Canadian economy will have to
innovate
What is the Shape of Things to Come?
Technology keeps getting easier to use
Moore’s Law: the density of circuits on an integrated chip was doubling
approximately every two years or so
Network effects: value that is received increases significantly as the number of
users increases
oEx. it would have been hard to sell the very first fax machines, but once a
core groups of users own them, it is easier to get more people to adopt
them because they can readily communicate with others
Lock-in or network effects make it harder to switch characteristics
oEx. the QWERTY keyboard
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Unit 1
Sales and Marketing (The “Promoters”)
The sales department is responsible for selling the company’s products or services – with
the obvious goal to increase sales. Typical responsibilities include:
Customer management (maintain list of contacts, credit status, past-orders)
Lead tracking (identify potential customers; expand the market)
Sales forecasting (project sales figures; monitor sales by individual, by territory, by
region)
The marketing department is responsible for overall promotion of the company’s goods or
services. It supports the sales efforts through:
Promotions & advertising (create and assess advertising, sales channels,
marketing strategy)
Special event planning (product launches, celebrity sponsorship, etc.)
Campaign management (contests, giveaways, media purchases)
Public Relations (The “Public Face”)
The PR department manages relationships with people and organizations that
are external to the corporation. Typical responsibilities include:
Customer service (answer customer questions on order status and product use;
provide web help via corporate website)
Complaint management (handle dissatisfied customers, product recalls)
Media relations and press releases (manage relationships with media and
investors)
Accounting and Finance (The “Numbers” People)
The accounting department handles the operational (day-to-day) financial information,
including:
Budgeting (quantify goals for revenue and expenses; track progress of the
budget)
General ledger (manage assets, liabilities, equity, accounts receivable, accounts
payable)
Cash management (manage inflows and outflows of cash; seek external financing
when needed)
The finance department is responsible for more strategic financial issues (longer term).
Their task is to increase the value of the business through sound financial practices.
Responsibilities include:
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