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Final

MICR 2420 Study Guide - Final Guide: Innate Immune System, Immune System, Complement System


Department
Microbiology
Course Code
MICR 2420
Professor
Emma Allen- Vercoe
Study Guide
Final

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Innate&and&Adaptive&
Immune&system&is&a&complex&collection&of&cells&and&soluble&proteins&that&are&
capable&of&responding&to&almost&any&foreign&molecular&structure
Physical&barriers
Chemical&and&cellular&response
Innate<nonspecific/&nonadaptive
Contact&with&an&infectious&agent<does&not&mean&a&person&will&get&sick
Breach&host&defenses<endocytosis
Begin&to&multiply
To&cause&disease&pathogen&needs&to:
Skin,&mouth,&lungs,&gut,&genito<urinary&system
!
First&defense
Epithelial& cells&tightly&knitted&together&using&tight)junctions
Proteins&between&cells&prevent&pathogens&from&going&
between&cells
Mucus&traps&pathogens&
Role:&to&trap&potential&pathogens&before&they&get&to&epithelial& cells&
!
Mucosal&surfaces&also&produce&mucus&to&cover&the&epithelium&(gut&and&
mouth)
Physical&Barriers
Set&of&proteins&made&by&the&liver<'complement'&antibiotics&in&
the&killing&of&bacteria&
Proteins&circulate&in&blood&and&enters&tissues&all&over&the&body&
Circulate&as&inactive&forms&and&are&proteolytically&cleaved&to&
make&them&active&"complement&activation"
Approx.&30&soluble&and&membrane&bound&protein&
components&of&the&complement&system
Complement&components&or&complexes&have&been&named&C1<
C9&
Complement&System&
!
Classical&Pathway
Lectin&Pathway
All&converge&on&Lytic&Pathway&
!
Alternative&Pathway
Alternative&pathway&is&associated&with&the&innate&immune&
system&so&we&will&go&over&it&here
3&Complement&Activation&Pathways
!
Myeloid&bone&marrow&stem&cells&differentiate&into&phagocyte&
Neutrophils&and&macrophages&are&primary&phagocytize&white&
blood&cells
Phagocyte&<cell& that&eats&(ie.&Amoeba)&
Defensins<body's&mace&
!
extra&cellular& trap&
Unusual&form&of&cell&death&by&the&neutrophil&called&NETosis&
Prevents&spread&of&pathogen
!
Sense&an&invader&and&spews&a&lattice&chromatin&and&anti&
microbial&compounds&into&the&vicinity&
Inappropriate&NETosis&is&thought&to&underlie&an&autoimmune&
disease&called&systemic&lupus&erythematosus&(lupus)&
Neutrophils&can&also&capture&pathogens&with&NETs&
!
Making&it&easier&for&white&blood&cells&to&migrate&
out&of&&blood&vessels&and&to&an&infection&site&
Secrete&substances&into&dilate&blood&vessels
!
Eiosonophils&play&a&large&role&in&killing&multicellular&
parasites&(ie.&Helminths<parasitic&worms)&
!
Allergic&response&
Mast&cells&and&basophils&are&similar&but&basophils&
circulate&and&the&mast&cells&are&resident&in&the&
connective&&tissue&and&mucosa&
!
Basophils&and&eosinophils&secrete&protein&that&toxic&to&
microbial&cells
Basophils,&Eosinophils,&and&Mast&Cells
!
Attracted&by&chemical&signals&(cytokines)&to&sites&where&
they&are&needed
!
Secretes&more&cytokines&to&attract&other&
phagocytes&
As&they&travel&through&the&blood&vessels,&they&
differentiate&into&macrophages
!
Monocytes&circulate&in&the&blood&stream
Monocytes&Differentiate&into&Macrophages&
!
First&contact&with&pathogens&
Killed&invading&pathogens&by&phagocytosis&
Process&the&remnants&of&the&pathogen&and&display&these&
antigens&on&their&cell& surface
First&step&in&adaptive&immunity&
!
T<cells&bind&these&antigens&and&become&activated&(lymphoid&
cells)&
Macrophages&are&Antigen&Presenting&Cells
!
Surveillance&System
House
Innate&Immune&System
Tuesday,& February& 9,&2016
2:39&PM
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