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University of Guelph
MICR 2420
Emma Allen- Vercoe

9162013 55000 AM POCHVirusesBaltimore Virus ClassificationGroup 1 Double Stranded DNA Make their own DNA polymerase or use Hosts RNA polymerase is that of hosts or virusesGroup 2 Single Stranded DNA Require host DNA Polymerase to make complimentary strand The DNA is then transcribed by host RNA polymeraseGroup 3 Double stranded RNA Viruses contain Viral dependent RNA Polymerase that they have packaged for instant transcriptionGroup 4single strandedstrand can serve directly as mRNA however requires synthesis ofstrand to form double stranded RNA intermediateGroup 5single stranded Need Viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase to transcribeinto mRNAOften segmented RNAGroup 6single strand retroviruses that use reverse transcriptase which transcribes RNA into double stranded DNA which is then integrated into host genome HIVGroup 7Double stranded DNA Use reverse transcriptase First copy DNA into RNA then reverse transcribe the RNA into progeny DNA using R transcriptase found in virion Hepatitis B Virus Some viruses envelop themselves in host membrane as a form of camoTegument is a package of proteins and enzymes a virus may use for quicker infection time and less lagFilamentous Virus helical capsidGenomes are too large and cannot be packed into an icosahedral Some of the material is packed outside and these viruses are fairly flexible such as ebolaMultiple Helical PackagesCollection of helical genome segmentsConstantly transforming and evolving influenzaComplex VirusesBacteriophagesLand and eject genetic material into bacteriaAsymmetrical VirusesVaccinia poxvirus chicken poxNo symmetrical capsid and it stabilized by covalent connection of two strands in a circleNo capsid DNA is enclosed by a core envelope surrounded by a membrane that comes from the hostContain a large number of accessory proteins enzymes and regulatory proteinsViral GenomesEfficiently packed into an mRNA like structureUse different starts to produce different proteinsLong Terminal Repeats LTRsignatures of viruses that represent scars on the host genomeViruses are made of at least a capsid and nucleic acidHERVsHuman endogenous RetrovirusesMake up 8 of the human genome Recognized by LTRHERVs are the remains of ancient viruses that once infected the germline and incorporated themselves into our genomeOver the millennia they have become degraded and nonfunctional Or have theyNot entirely junk DNA Recent onset psychosis and multiple sclerosis patience show evidence of transcription of HERV genesMS Patients in particular respond well to interferon beta therapy which suppresses retroviral replicationViroidExtremely simple and no protective capsidUsually RNA molecules that infect plantsSome have catalytic activity Cleave very specific RNA sequences to interfere with transcription and translation may be useful in medicinePrionsConsist of proteins onlyNot Viruses or cellsThey contact and force normal proteins to change their confirmationBacteriaProkaryotesFree living organisms that may live in ecosystems
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