World of Viruses Midterm Notes.pdf

56 Pages
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Department
Microbiology
Course Code
MICR 3330
Professor
Azad K Kaushik Bonnie Mallard

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Description
Important Terms in Virologyvirioncomplete virus particle aka virus particleCapsid coatthe protein shell encasing the viral genomenucleocapsid corenucleic acidprotein the discrete substructure within the virion of enveloped virusessubunita single folded polypeptidestructural unitbasic unit to build capsidnucleocapsid may be a single subunit or multiple subunitsenvelopelipid membrane enclosing the nucleocapsid not all viruses are envelopedBiosynthesisthe synthesis of viral components required for building new generation of virusesTranscriptionproduction of mRNAs from genomeReverse transcriptionproduction of DNA using RNA as templateTranslationproduction of proteins using cell machinerygenome replicationproduction of nascent viral genomehost rangethe range of hosts that can be infected by a given virustissue tropismthe preference of a given virus for certain types of cell and tissue in its hostssusceptible cellscells that allow attachment and entry of a given viruspermissive cellscells that permit the replication of a given virusLecture 1IntroductionViruses with large context in the PastSmall Pox Variola Variola Pharaoh Ramses Vhad marks on his faceneckdid he have small pox what could he have hadVariola is the latin namecaused by a DNA virusOrthopoxyvirus Poxiviridaehighly deadly 80 of children and 2060 of adults dierst recorded 1500 BC in India infected 80 of Europe at one pointaltered human history when North America was invaded and they brought measles and small poxWHO launched a global vaccination in the 60s and declared total eradication of small pox in 1979Small pox as a biological weapon in North AmericaFrenchIndian wars 17541763 British general suggests germ warfare by distributing small poxinoculated blankets to Indian allies of the FrenchColonel Bouquet instructed Captain Ecuyer to distribute two infected blankets as gifts and reported it to General AmherstInuenza epidemics and pandemics recorded in 412 BC by Hippocrates periodic epidemics thought due to bad air caused by astrological inuencesusually occur in young old and weak but strong people tooSpanish The Great Flu Pandemic 19181919devastated both sides in the warestimated 2070 million people deadextremely lethal and painfulduring pandemics it is the young old and sick that get hit worstPoliomyelitis infection by poliovirusEgyptian stelaimage of man with paralysis of legthe paralytic causing paralysis form of poliovirus infection is most fearedhygiene related issuesdevastated the rst half of 1900spossible signs of paralysis caused by polio in ancient EgyptRoosevelt infected in 30s declares war on polioby 1950s only treatment was the Iron LungEbola Virusgreater than 75 mortality rate for hemorrhaging caused by EbolavirusViruses nowMeasles medically called Rubeolafever and rashMumpsinammation of salivary glands sterility in malesCold Sore Human herpesvirus 1Human Papillomavirus HPVmost common STI in US80 of American women have at least one type of genital HPV by 5015 prevalence of highrisk types in femaleshighrisk type HPV infection can cause cervical cancerAIDSmost feared pandemicin 1981 pneumonia cluster in LA occurred followed by Karposis sarcoma cases14000 new infectionsdayby 2009 33 million people are living with HIV 18 million dieSubSaharan Africa 25 of population infected in some regionsAttacks the immune system death due to secondary infectionTransmission through bodily uid sex injection blood transfusion etcSARS 2003rst reported Feb 11 2003 in Hong Kongtotal infections 8437total mortality 813Tulips are infected with virusesPlum Pox was a quarantinable disease introduced in North America in 90s crops were lostunmarketablePapayas can be infected with Papaya ringspot virusListeriosis Outbreaka biophage company produced Listex which is effective against Listeria monocytogenesLecture 2Discover Morphology Composition Architecturevirionthe complete infective form of a virus outside a host cell with a core of RNA or DNA and a capsiddiscovery of the rst virus Tobacco Mosaic VirusMayer German director at the Agric Exp Station in Netherlandsin 1879 he made extractions from tobacco with mosaic symptomsin 1882 he released a preliminary reportcalled what he found soluble enzymelike contagiumPublished in 1886called it unknown bacteriumdid not stick with original assessment but he was right the rst timeIvanovsky Russianltered the extract through a Chamberland bacterium proof based on size exclusion lterltrate was still infectious1892 reports that lter must be defectiveBeijerinck Dutchltered as well but diluted ltrateThe unknown was considered Contagium vivid uidum contagious living uidThe lesson is to understand that you do not know everything and that not having a category to t your discovery means there could be a new oneWendell Stanley Rockefeller Research Institutecrystallization of TMVvirus is protein in nature BawdenPiriein 1936 discovered TMV contrains 5 RNAErnst Ruska1939 rst EM graph of TMVVirus reconstitution and proof of RNA as genetic materialFrankelConrat 1950s UCBerkley1 coat protein CP alone assembles into virionNot infectious2 CP and RNA assembles into virion Infectious3 RNA alone InfectiousConclusion RNA is the genetic materialrst animal virusLoefer and Frosch German 1898lterable virus from cattle with FootandMouth diseasemost feared and contagious viral sides of clovenhoofed animalsreduction in milk and meat infertility of female cattlerequired quarantine in North America Australia New Zealand and Japanrst human virusyellow fever virus 1901a devastating disease in the tropics and subtropicsinfects primatestransmission by insect vector discovered by Carlos Finlay supervisor Walter Reedintroduced to the New World via the slave tradekilled 15 of spoliation in Philadelphia in 1793human volunteers were used for vector transmission19 tested 8 infected 3 deadbacteriophages and the Phage Groupthe phage group named themselves after bacteriophagesdistinctive math and physics approach to biologyFrederick Twort 1915 Brown Institute Londonattempted to culture vaccinia virus contamination glassy transformation
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