Psych Notes (2).docx

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Marketing and Consumer Studies
MCS 1000
Sergio Meza

PSYCH1000Module NotesMODULE 1on the scale of outer space we are less that a single grain of sand on all the oceans beaches and our lifetime but a regular nanosecondto what extent do genes predispose our person to person differencesto what extent do home and community environments shape us in what ways are we alike as members of the human family how do we differhow often and why do we dreamwhat do babies actually perceive and thinkare some people just born smarter why do some people get richer think more creatively or relate more sensitivelywhat triggers our bad moodswhats the line between a normal mood wing and a psychological disorder for which someone should seek helphow do todays electronic media influence how we think and how we relateAristotle theorized about learning and memory motivation and emotion perception and personalitybirth of psychDecember 1879 Germanys University of LeipzigWilhelm Wundt created an experimental apparatus to measure atoms of the mind the fastest and simplest mental processedschools of thoughtstructuralism and functionalismEdward Bradford Titchener aimed to discover the minds structurethrough selfreflective introspectionproved unreliableresults varied from person to personWilliam James thought it would be more fruitful to consider the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelingspeople in different cultures vary in when and how often they smile but a natural happy smile means the same thing anywhere in the worldMargaret Floy Washburnfirst female psychologist with a PHDWilliam James and Henry Holt published Principles of Psychologywhat event defined the start of scientific psychologybegan in Germany in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology labwhy did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind workpeoples selfreports varied depending on the experience and the persons intelligence and verbal abilitystructuralism used introspection to define the minds makeup functionalism focused on how mental processes enable us to adapt survive and flourishbehaviorismthe view that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behavior without reference to mental processesmostresearch psychologists today agree with 1 but not 2humanistic psychologyhistorically significant perspective that emphasized thegrowth potential of healthy peopleCS Lewisthere is one thing and only one in the whole universe which we know more about than we could learn from external observationpsychology was early defined as the science of mental lifeJohn B Watson and BF Skinner dismissed introspection and defined psychology as the scientific study of observable behaviorscience is rooted in observationFreudian psychology emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behaviorhumanistic psychologistsCarl Rogers Abraham Maslowhumanistic psychologists drew attention to ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential and to the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfiedrebellion of a second group of psychologists during the 1960scognitive revolutionthe cognitive revolution led the field back to its early interest in mental processes such as the importance of how our mind processes and retains informationcognitive neuroscience has enriched our understanding of the brain activity underlying mental activitycognitive approach has given us new ways to understand ourselves and to treat disorders such as depressiontoday we define psychology as the science of behavior and mental processesbehavior is anything an organism doesmental processes are the internal subjective experiences we infer from behaviorbehavioryelling smiling blinking sweating etcmental processessensations perceptions dreams thoughtsfrom the 1920s through the 1960s the two major forces in psychology were behaviorism and Freudian psychologyThe Nature Nurture Questionto what extent are our traits already set in our place at birthand to what extent do our traits develop in response to our environmentexperienceNaturePlatoideas such as the good and beauty are inbornDescartessome ideas are innateCharles Darwinsome traits behaviors and instincts are part of the nature of the speciesNurtureAristotleall knowledge comes through the sensesJohn Lockethe mind is a blank slate written on by experiencehow did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychologyrecaptured the fields early interest in mental processes and made them legitimate topics for scientific studyIvan Pavlov and Jean Piaget as well as Wundt James and Freud Magellans of the Mind illustrate psychologys origins in many disciplines and many countriespsychology is growing and developing and globalizingcognitive neurosciencethe interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition including perception thinking memory and languagepsychologythe science of behavior and mental processesnaturenurture issuethe longstanding controversy over the relative contributionsthat genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviorsTodays science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of natureand nurturenatural selectionthe principle that among the range of inherited trait variationsthose contributing to reproduction and survival will most likelybe passed on to succeeding generationsare our human traits present at birth or do they develop through experiencephoto assumed we inherit character and intelligence and that certain idea are inbornAristotle countered that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come in from the external world through the sensesJohn Locke argued that the mind is a blank slate on which experience writesRen Descartes disagreed believing that some ideas are innateCharles Darwins principle of nature selection is still with us 150 years later as biologys organizing principleare gener differences biologically predisposed or socially constructedis childrens grammar mostly innate or formed by experiencehow are intelligence and personality differences influence by heredity and by environmentare sexual behaviors more pushed by inner biology or pulled by external incentivesshould we treat psychological disorders are disorders of the brain disorders of thought or bothour species is biologically endowed with an enormous capacity to learn and adaptevery psychological event is a biological eventdepression can be both a brain disorder and a thought disorder
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