MCS 2020 Chapter notes 7-12 .docx

32 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
Marketing and Consumer Studies
MCS 2020
Nicole Mc Callum

7-12 NOTES Chapter 07 – Info Ethics  Textbook Readings o 7.1: Ethics for the Information Age o 7.2: Consequence-based Reasoning o 7.3: Action-oriented Reasoning o 7.4: Ethics in Practice o 7.5: The Future of Information Ethics o 7.6: Codes of Conduct (experiment worksheet optional)  Learning Objectives o Apply multiple ethical approaches to decision-making o Understand and apply teleological and deontological reasoning o Recognize the importance of codes of conduct for professionals and for companies o Understand and define conflict of interest o Compare and contrast competitive intelligence with corporate espionage o Acknowledge the difficulty associated with developing information technology ethics for the Information Age  Key Terms o The Golden Rule o Egoism o The Rule of Change o Risk Aversion Principle o No Free Lunch Rule o Utilitarian Principle / Teleological o Utility o Pleasure vs. Pain o Consequences o Categorical Imperative / Deontological o Conflict of Interest o Duty o Codes of Conduct o Fiduciary Principle o Property Principle o Reliability Principle o Transparency Principle o Dignity Principle o Fairness Principle o Citizenship Principle o Responsiveness Principle o Competitive Intelligence o Corporate Espionage  Information Ethics in Practice  Why Ethics? o Competing interests create ethical dilemmas  People (not organizations) make choice  People have the unique ability to reason ethically o Unethical behaviour sends the wrong message  To employees  To the marketplace  To investors (socially responsible investing)  To public  Ethics: An Introduction o Branch of Philosophy  Nature of moral virtue  Evaluates human actions  Individuals as free moral agents (free choice) o Rational, secular study  Grounded in human happiness and well being o Morals vs. Ethics o Role of Law  Six Approaches o The Golden Rule o Egoism o The Rule of Change (Descartes) o Risk Aversion Principle o No Free Lunch Rule o Utilitarian Principle (Bentham, Stuart Mill) o Categorical Imperative (Kant)  Teleological Ethics (Utilitarian Principle) o Results-oriented ethics  Pragmatic, common-sense approach o Actions have no moral value  Only the consequences of those actions do o Actions that produce more benefit than harm are morally ‘right’ o Moral character depends on the practical nature of whether actions help or hurt others  Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) o Wanted to develop a rational way of separating right from wrong o Humans have two masters  Pleasure (makes life happier)  Pain (makes life worse) o Theory of utility (Utilitarianism)  The capacity to produce good or prevent evil o Pleasure is the ultimate standard of morality  Employed ‘hedonistic calculus’  John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) o Please and pain can be classified according to quality  High/low quality pleasure  High/low quality pain o Personal experience helps distinguish the quality of pleasure and pain o Any action is defensible (as long as it produces enough high quality pleasure)  Deontological Ethics (Categorical Imperative) o All actions have intrinsic moral value o Some are inherently good  Honesty, respect, generosity o Some are inherently bad  Theft, dishonesty, manipulation o Consequence are irrelevant  The end never justifies the means o These moral values are fundamental to human existence  Immanuel Kant (1742-1804) o Categorical imperative  Fundamental moral law  Freedom and dignity (our inalienable rights)  Rooted in our human character o Focused on the internal, rational aspect of human behaviour o Ethics should be universally valid (like math)  If it is not right for everyone, it is not right for anyone  Ethical Analysis o Identify and describe the facts  What things are known to be true? o Define the conflict and higher-order values  What is the conflict really about? o Identify the stakeholders  Who has an interest in the outcome o Identify the (reasonable) options  What might be done? o Identify the consequences of each option  What might happen?  Resolving an Ethical Dilemma o Use teleological and deontological approached  Conflicting approached in theory  Complementary approached in practice o Steps:  Analyze the Consequences  Analyze the Actions  Make a Decision  Ethical Analysis (analyze the consequences) o Examine range of positive and negative consequences  Who will be helped?  Who will be hurt?  What kind of quality or benefits are present?  High-quality good (health, sensitivity to others)  Low-quality good (sensual indulgence, satisfy appetites)  Low-quality hurt (small lies, mockery, apathy)  High-quality hurt (betrayal, murder, infidelity)  What are the long-term/short-term consequences?  Ethical Analysis (analyze the actions) o Ignore all of the consequences (forget about what might happen)  How do actions themselves measure up?  Honesty, fairness, equality, betrayal, murder, lies  Do any actions ‘cross the line’ at any level  Is there a conflict between the rights of the people involved?  Is there a recognition of individuals who are weaker or less fortunate?  Conflict of interest o A situation in which a person has a private or personal interest sufficient to appear to influence the objective exercise of his/her duties o Key Elements:  Private interest  Appearance of influence  Official duty  Professional Judgement o Examples:  Self-dealing  Accepting bribes and benefits  Influence peddling  Using employer’s property for personal gain  Acting on confidential information  Outside employment (moonlighting)  Post-employment  Professional Codes of Conduct o Protect reputation for honesty and competency o Ensure accuracy and reliability o Respect confidentiality o Recognize intellectual property rights o Comply with rules of access o Obligation to:  Management and employer  Fellow members  Society  DEBATE 4 – LOCATION INTELLIGENCE  Moxie has enjoyed incredible sales growth o Consumer sector o Corporate and government sector  We recently secured contracts with large university campuses o Looking to reduce their carbon footprint o Prefer low maintenance vehicles  Sales have been stronger than anticipated  Need to increase production capacity o 20-28 months plan to add a second line to our production facility in Woodstock o Will meet the expected demand for the Moxie o Woodstock will not have capacity to produce the Viva City  Need to find a new location to produce the Viva City o Want to locate in a new mid-sized municipality o Committed to keeping operations in Canada  Potential Cities: o Abbotsford, Burlington, Kingston, Lethbridge, Oakville, Oshawa, Sherbrooke, Windsor  Considerations o Access to transportation o Proximity to major cities and markets o Cost of land and taxes o Availability of skilled labourers o Availability of infrastructure o Proximity of suppliers o Proximity of competitors o Quality of life in city o Municipal regulations  Need to consider short and long-term factors  Important to keep momentum going o Plans are to launch the Viva City in 2011  Managers have narrowed the list to two Ontario cities o Kingston – Group A  Windsor – Group B Chapter 08 – Privacy  Textbook Readings o 8.1: Identifiability o 8.2: Anonymity o 8.3: Privacy Legislation o 8.4: Data Mining o 8.5: Privacy Doesn’t Exist  Learning Objectives o Recognize the seven methods for identifying someone (name, location, etc.) o Distinguish between pseudonym (alias, false name), anonymity, and confidentiality o Understand privacy legislation in Canada and around the Western world o Identify fundamental data-mining techniques and their purpose o Distinguish between subscription data and transaction data o Explain how web cookies work o Acknowledge the shifting nature of privacy in a connected world  Key Terms o Identity o Identifiability and differentiation o Anonymity o Pseudonymity o Confidentiality o Privacy o Locational Privacy o Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) o Aggregation o Data mining o Propensity to buy o Next sequential purchase o Product affinity o Price elasticity modeling o Customer profiling o Subscription data vs. Transaction data o Demographic profiles vs. Behaviour profiles  Privacy Legislation and Identity  Identity o The individual characteristics by which something is known or recognized  Purpose is differentiation  Society needs to tell things/people apart  True identity is a combination of characteristics:  Biological attributes  Cultural traditions  Belief systems  Behavioral characteristics  Institutional attachments  Methods of Identification o Names  Differentiation based on official/unofficial names o Location  Differentiation based on location  Fixed addresses  Real-time tracking o Traceable alphanumeric symbols  Differentiation based on unique set of symbols  Assigned by a trusted intermediary  Numbers are connected to individuals o Untraceable alphanumeric symbols  Differentiation based on unique set of symbols  Assigned at random  Numbers are not connected to individuals o Pattern Behaviour  Differentiation based on repeated choices  Purchase habits  Schedule information  Communication patterns o Social categorization  Differentiation based on categories  Gender, age, sex, religion  Social activities, sporting events, educational choices o Certification and Eligibility  Differentiation based on knowledge, artifacts, skills  Uniforms  Educational degrees  Secure password information  Anonymity o Conducting affairs without revealing identity o Identity is completely obscured  Identification of an individual is impossible o Individual has complete control over personal information  Challenges: dissemination & persistence  Pseudonym & Confidentiality o Pseudonym-ity  Conducting affairs under an assumed identity  Real identity is obscured behind an invented identity  Pseudonym may or may not be connected to the individual o Confidentiality  Conducting affairs while identity is protected  Identity is known, but protected  Identity is connect to individuals, but not made public  Privacy o The ability (and right) to be left alone  Free from unwanted public attention  Free from interference or intrusion  Grants control over identifiability  Individual chooses when to reveal personal identity o Privacy legislation  Balance between  Individual’s need for privacy/anonymity  Society’s need for identifiabiltiy  Privacy in the western world o European Union  Directive on the protection of personal data  Each country has a supervisory authority to monitor compliance o United States  No federal law to provide guidance on personal data  States set their own legislation  Few recognize the ‘right to privacy’  California is the most notable exception  Pipeda: o Objective  To balance ‘the right of privacy of individuals with respect to their personal information and the need of organizations to collect, use or disclose personal information for purposes that a reasonable person would consider appropriate in the circumstances.’ o Protection  Protect personal information  ‘Factual or subjective information in any form about an identifiable individual’ (Taylor, 2003)  Does not protect publicly available information  Name, job title, business address, telephone numbers, court records, etc… o 10 Principles  Accountability  Protect information in it possession  Protect information transferred to third parties  Appoint a privacy officer  Identifying Purposes  Identify why the information is being collected  Before or during the time of collection  Reasons should be defined as narrowly possible  Consent  Customer gives consent for information collection  Could be implied or explicitly given  New purposed for information require renewed consent  Limiting collection  Cannot collect information through deception  Amount and type of information collected should be limited to fulfillment or purpose  Limiting Use  Keep information only as long as necessary to fulfill the identified purposes  Accuracy  Ensure that information is current and correct  Limit the amount of duplication  Safeguards  Provide adequate security to protect the information  Physical, technical and organizational measures  Openness  Policies must be readily available  Privacy offices should be clearly identified  Individual Access  Individuals can request access to their information  Companies have 30 days to provide the information  Challenging Compliance (Resource)  Individuals can challenge an organization’s compliance  Fines and bad publicity may result  DEBATE 5 – COSTUMER INFORMATION o Zooma Vehicles filed for bankruptcy  U.S based competitor  Joined the EV industry late  Economic downturn killed their business o Zooma’s creditors are selling the company assets to recoup their investment  Banks, venture capitalists, personal investors, etc… o We are not interested in their physical assets  Production facilities are in the U.S  We already have superior assembly line robotics o Zooma’s intellectual assets are more attractive o They amassed a large customer database  Used brilliant viral marketing strategies  Attracted 20-28 year olds (important demographic for the future of our economy)  Could enable us to market directly to people who are already interested in EVs. o To avoid suspicion from regulators the creditors have included the customer data bate in a larger ‘data package’ o Data package includes  Customer information, supplier information  Minor patents, trademarks  Product specifications, R&D reports  Marketing plans, advertising rights o Zooma was a private company  Can only speculate on the quality of information o Data package is about to be auctioned  Competitors may be interested too o Privacy  Selling the database may be a violation of Zooma’s privacy policy  Creditors believe that the privacy policy is void because the company went bankrupt o Controversy  Could provide important information about potential customers and qualified leads  Could lead to negative publicity or consumer backlash o Options:  For purchasing data package – Group A  Against purchasing data package – Group B  DATA MINING AND CUSTOEMR PROFILING  Locational Privacy o ‘Locational privacy is the ability of an individual to move in public space with the expectation that under normal circumstances their location will NOT be systematically and secretly recorded for later use.’  Collecting Locaitonal Data o RFID  Electronic tolls, U.S Passports, security passes o GPS  Smart phones, GPS devices, in-car navigation o Signal Triangulation  Cell phones o Wi-Fi  Network access point  Locational Privacy o Locations data is collected:  Pervasively  Collected everywhere and at all times  Silently  Collected without notice or inconvenience  Inexpensively  Collected at low cost o Trade=Off: Convenience vs. Privacy  E.g. location-based search services  Aggregation o Combing data about individuals into a single group  Less interested in particular individuals  More interested in particular types of individuals  Easier to identify patterns by pooling individuals  Examine collective behavior o Examples  Students on MCS*2020  Nursing home patients  Guelph residents o Data is ‘anonymized’  Purpose: to conceal identity  Individuals are grouped by shred characteristics  Not by names or individuals identities  Patterns help predict future behaviour  Caution: data can be ‘de-anonymized’  Anonymous data could be correlated with public data  Multiple anonymous data points could be combined  Potential outcome: identity is compromised  People can be disambiguated  Customer Profiling o Categorizing customers according to specific traits, behaviour, and/or choices o Purpose:  Identify common characteristics or customers  Reveal profitable (and unprofitable) customers  Group customers into similar categories  Segment the market (for more focused advertising)  Know your customers betters  Move beyond general impressions o Demographic Profiles  Based on customer characteristics  Demographics (age, sex, education, income, etc…)  Psychographics (personality, attitudes, interests, etc..)  Location o Behavioral profiles  Based on customer choice  Purchase amount (how much? Method of payment?)  Purchase details (which items? How often?) o Behavioral profiles are stronger predictors of future relationships with customers  Data Types o Subscription data  Describe personal details  Signify demographic categories  Include personally identifiable information (PII) o Transaction data  Describe discrete events  Signify purchase preference  Include a time dimension and numerical value  Data Mining o Applications of statistical models to large data sets  Subscription data & Transaction data o Goal: identify patterns in the data  Prediction, sequence, association o Combing related data from different sources o Primarily looking at aggregated data  Aggregation: combing data about individuals into a single group  Data Mining Process o Define a business problem o Select target data set o Clean the data set (eliminate noise) o Apply statistical model o Analyze the pattern o Interpret results o Refine business practice  Behavioral Prediction o Propensity to buy  Which products is a consumer likely to purchase? o Next sequential purchase  Which products will the consumer buy next? o Product affinity analysis  Which products are purchased together? o Price elasticity modeling (dynamic pricing)  What’s the optimal price for a given customer?  Surveillance o Focused regular attention direct at particular individuals  Purposeful  Routine  Systematic  Focused o Focused on the particular not the general  Opposite objective of aggregation  Impact of technology (ability to follow everyone) Chapter 09 – Security  Textbook Readings o 9.1: Surveillance o 9.2: The Hacker Ethic o 9.3: Computer Crime o 9.4: Malicious Code o 9.5: Cyber-terrorism o 9.6: Strategies for Protection (experiment worksheet optional)  Learning Objectives o Describe the different types of malware and destructive code o Explain the impact of cyber-terrorism on governments and businesses o Understand the three strategies for protection: authentication and authorization; prevention and resistance; detection and response o Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of surveillance o Explain how hackers are both good and bad for the Internet  Key Terms o Surveillance o Hacker Ethic o Black hat vs. White hat o Computer Crime o Identity theft o Destructive code / malware o Worm o Virus o Trojan Horse o Sniffer o Denial of Service (DoS) Attack o Cyberterrorism o Botnets o Spam o Authentication and authorization o Prevention and resistance o Detection and response  HACKERS AND COMPUTER CRIME  Security and Privacy o Security  Free from danger, harm, or fear (of danger)  Expectations of safety and protection  Essential survival o Privacy  The ability (and right) to be left alone  Free from unwanted public attention  Free from interference or intrusion  Grants control over identifiability  Social need (not essential for survival)  Surveillance o Focused regular attention directed at particular individuals  Purposeful  Routine  Systematic  Focused o Focused on the particular not the general  Opposite objective of aggregation  Impact technology (ability to follow everyone)  Hackers & The Hacker Ethic o Hackers (1960s)  Motivated by curiosity  Hacker ethic evolved  Unlimited access to tools and technology  Information wants to be free  Evaluation based strictly on merit  Promise of technology  White Hat vs. Black Hat  Computer Crimes o Data didling o Salami slicing o Phreaking o Cloning o Piggyback/shoulder-surfing o Social engineering o Spoofing/phishing  Destructive Code: Malware o Virus  Rogue software program that attached itself to other programs  Delivers a ‘payload’  Display a message, destroys data, overloads computer memory, targets individual applications, etc…  Replicates itself across the network  From human action (e.g. sending an email attachment)  Worm  Independent computer program  Copies itself and sends itself around the network o Spreads more quickly than viruses  Blogs memory space, halting computer activity  Does not usually destroy data  Spread through email attachments, internet downloads, web browsing, infected media (e.g. CDs)  Trojan Horse  Program appears to be benign (harmless)  System appears to function normally  Performs unauthorized code beneath the surface  Does not replicate  Code can be set to perform its malicious intent at a certain time when a specific function is run  Sniffer  An eavesdropping program  Monitors information traveling over a network  Legitimate uses o Help spot criminal activity o Reduce network trouble  Illegitimate uses o Enable criminals to steal proprietary information o Read unencrypted emails company files  Cyber Terrorism & Extortion o Denial of Service attack (DoS)  Hackers flood a network with false communications  Thousands of requests overwhelm the server  Legitimate threats cannot get through  Website server crashes – website goes offline  Data is not destroyed but companies cannot get information out to their customers o Botnets  Collection of computers infected with malware  Computers function normally until they are given instructions  These ‘zombie’ computers then attach websites and organizations when directed by the botnet herder  Often using a Denial of Service Attack  Estimates are that almost 20% of computers on the internet are actually zombies  Strategies for Protection o Authentication and Authorization  Confirming users’ identities  Granting permission to resources and information o Preventing and Resistance  Encryption  Firewalls o Detection and Response  Anti-virus protection software  Update the definitions frequently  Identity Theft o When someone assumes another’s identity and expects to benefit from the impersonation  Form of fraud not theft o Too much identification or too little privacy  Commercial identity theft  Criminal identity theft  Financial identity theft  Identity cloning  Medical identity theft o Criminals need to obtain personally identifiable information (PII)  Mining data breaches  Impersonating a trusted company (phishing)  Skimming data from payment/ID cards  Dumpster driving  Reading RFID chips  Impersonating deceased individuals  DEBATE 6 – BIOMETRICS o Industry analysts suggest we are the company to watch over the next few years  Strong sales with Moxie  Upcoming launch of Viva City Car  Advanced battery technology o New Ceramic Battery  Keeps its charge longer  Weighs less  Greater power output  Contains no hazardous materials o Developing New batteries is expensive  Hire qualified engineers  Finalize industrial designs  Prototype and test technology o To protect the technology  Applied for patents with the U.S Patent Office  Still in the application stage (not yet secured) o Managers are worried that competitors with try to get a sneak peek at our R &D  Internal and external threats o Battery research is conducted in Waterloo  Warehouse is secured with RFID badges  Highly sensitive areas also require 8-Digit password o Proposal  Installing a biometric system to replace the existing security system  Protect out intellectual (and physical) assets  Monitor employee movement o Biometric system of choice  Retina scanning  Uniquely identify each person who enters the building based on their eye scan o Controversy  Threat of corporate espionage is real  Biometrics could add a higher level of security  System may cause more trouble than its worth o Sided:  For Retina Scan System – Group A  Against Retina Scan System – Group B Chapter 10 – Property  Textbook Readings o 10.1: Ideas and Ownership o 10.2: Real Property vs Intellectual Property o 10.3: The Story of Copyright o 10.4: Digital Rights Management o 10.5: The Case Against Intellectual Property  Learning Objectives o Distinguish between the four main types of intellectual property (copyright, trademarks, trade secrets and patents) o Define copyright and understand how it is designed to balance the rights of the creator with the rights of the public o Understand that approaches to copyright differ depending on culture or particular point in history o Explain the purpose and functionali
More Less

Related notes for MCS 2020

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.