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Molecular Biology and Genetics
MBG 1000
Georgevander Merwe

Definitions for Genetics and Society Tolerance: the power of enduring or resisting the action of a drug, poison, etc.; a tolerance to antibiotics; the lack of or low levels of immune response to transplanted tissue or other foreign substance that is normally immunogenic Transcription: manufacturing RNA from DNA Translation: assembly of an amino acid chain according to the sequence of base triplets in a molecule of mRNA Gene: a sequence of DNA that instructs a cell to produce a particular protein Chromatin: DNA and its associated proteins Promoter: a control sequence near the start of a gene Genome: the complete set of genetic instructions in the cells of a particular type of organism Exon: part of a gene that encodes amino acids Intron: part of the gene that is transcribed but is excised from the mRNA before translation into protein Codon: a continuous triplet of mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid Anticodon: a three-base sequence on one loop of a transfer RNA molecule that is complementary to an mRNA codon, and joins to the appropriate amino acid and it mRNA Polysome: a group of ribosomes joined by a molecule of messenger RNA containing a portion of the genetic code that is to be translated; polysomes are found in the cytoplasm during protein synthesis Chaperone: a protein that binds a polypeptide and guides folding Proteasome: a multiprotein structure in a cell shaped like a barrel through which misfolded proteins pass and are folded or dismantled Mutant: an allele that differs from the normal or most common allele in a population that alters the phenotype Spontaneous Mutation: a genetic change that results from mispairing when the replication machinery encounters a base in its rare tautomeric form Mutagen: a substance that changes, adds or delete a DNA base Carcinogen: a substance that cause cancer Pseudogene: a gene that does not encode protein, but whose sequence closely resembles that of a coding gene Synonymous codons: DNA triplets that specify the same amino acid Missense mutation: a single base change mutation that alters an amino acid Nonsense mutation: a point mutation that changes an amino-acid-coding codon into a stop codon, prematurely terminating synthesis of the encoded protein Frameshift mutation: a mutation that alters a gene’s reading frame Conditional mutation: a genotype that is expressed only under certain environmental
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