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Midterm Note Review

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MUSC 1060
Kimberly Francis

Music Midterm Review LISTENING: FROM THE RENAISSANCE: 1. Josquin des Prez, The Cricket 2. William Byrd, Sing Joyfully 3. (Not on MyMusicLab but on the Naxos Playlist -- and elsewhere...): 4. Weelkes, Since Robin Hood 5. Arcadelt, Il bianco e dolce cigno 6. Palestrina, Kyrie from the Missa Papae Marcelli FROM THE BAROQUE (and ALL from MyMusicLab) 1. Claudio Monteverdi, Orpheus selection from Act II 2. Henry Purcell, Dido and Aeneas Overture and Act 1, nos. 1-4 (Any one portion of these two excerpts is fair game) OPERA 3. Barbara Strozzi, Revenge aria ***For each, you should be able to name composer (first and last names), title (in English, though foreign language titles also accepted), era, and significance (of the work). VOCABULARY: MELODY: single line of notes heard in succession as unit PHRASE: CONTOURS: a rising and falling variation pattern, as in music and intonation SCALES: HARMONY: 2 notes; two or more notes heard as a single entity. Simultaneous sounding of two or more pitches. CHORDS: three or more notes sounding simultaneously A melody can be harmonized (using chords) in more than one way, our harmonic choices are infinite “and harmonic choices can be an early way to make a statement/change the meaning of PITCH: Defined in hertz. Highness or lowness of a pitch based on FREQUENCIES (number of oscillations per second). A440 # that which sounds when something vibrates at 440Hz. DYNAMICS: loudness or softness of the music. Based on AMPLITUDE. Basic notational values (all Italian terms) p (piano) = soft, f (forte) = loud . TIMBRE: Distinct sound quality of a given instrument/voice. Defined by the overtones in a sound wave. (each instrument/voice will have its own distinct sounds wave like a fingerprint) TEXTURE: relationships between the different components of a given passage. 1. MONOPHONIC: do they all sound at the same time and do exactly the same thing without and accompaniment 2. HOMOPHONIC: is there a single melody line with accompaniment (a star voice with some supporting roles) 3. POLYPHONIC: are there multiple melodies of equal importance occurring at the same time FORM: all music is in some way organized through time, even if that is the complete rejection of organization. The pattern of organization (or lack thereof) is refered to as form. Three standard formal strategies; 1. REPETITION 2. VARIATION 3. CONTRAST WORD PAINTING: Composers often use music to reinforce/conflict what a text is saying, Poetic, GENRE: Categories music into related groups like: Rock, indie rock, classical, folk, jazz. In western classical music, we often categorize by; 1. INSTRUMENTATION: (string quartet, symphony, piano, opera, mass..) 2. SOCIAL FUNCTION: THE OFFICES: services performed throughout the day that initially used exclusively chant  MARTINS: sung before daybreak  LAUDS: performed at sunrise  PRIME: 6 A.M.  TERCE: 9 A.M.  SEXT: Noon  NONE: 3P.M.  VESPERS: Sunset (only office that allowed for polyphony) Compline: directly after Vespers  COMPLINE: directly after Vespers ORGANUM: composed chant for more than one part. ORGANUM TRIPLUM: 3 voices involved all doing different things DISCANT CLAUSULAE: parts of chant and start inserting them into other chants that they liked TRECENTO: (anything that happened in the 1300 in Italy) TRIPLE METER: (1-2-3, 1-2-3) POLYPHONIS TEXTURE: MEDIEVAL PERIOD:  Began 476CE  Spans 1000 years, from Fall of Roman EmpireRenaissance.  Roman Catholic Church Dominated (Music was a way to serve God) IMPORTANT HISTORICAL INFLUENCES:  Western empire: Rome (home base)  Eastern empire, Byzantium: Constantinople (home base)  800: Charlemagne crowned as Emperor (French)  936: Otto I establishes the Holy Roman Empire  1095: Beginning of the Crusades GRAND RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS: NOTRE DAME  Pass along a liturgical message, especially to the illiterate.  Reinforce a particular narrative.  Inspire as an allegory of the power of the divine.  Likewise, plainchant was meant to transfer a message and inspire worshipers through its sound.  Question of MORTALITY (paid church, supported religious power, kings, bring you into this lifestyle) PLAINCHANT  POPE GREGORY (540-604) Claimed the Holy Spirit, in the form of a dove, gave him the melodies of plainchant.  ANONYMOUS COMPOSERS (800 CE) (monks, priests, nuns) developed and codified a repertory of plainchant of which there were many traditions: o Ambrosian, Byzantian, o Gallican, o Mozarabic, o Gregorian Chant GREGORIAN CHANT:  Illuminated manuscript: NEUMES  Text is always in Latin,  Made out of gold  Created by at least 3 scribes it is a multi-person job.  Illustrations were a story, meant to teach something, an added element to think about. NEUMES:  Were produced it was a modern-day Germany  Likely noted by trained scribes, monks with specific knowledge of music notation and with great artistic talent  Every large religious establishment would have monks on hand who would produce manuscripts such as this.  The detail and richness of each manuscript precluded the opportunity to mass-produce and distribute these books. They would have been very valuable and specific to the needs of a certain church and its musical practices.  EX: The first letter of the chant is enlarged and has illustrations incorporated in it, which coincide with the story behind the chant itself. READING PLAINCHANT MUSIC:  One note per syllable = syllable setting of plainchant  Earliest system of pitch notation indicated CONTOUR but not specific pitches nor durations. This system suggested the performers largely memorized the repertory.  Red lines indicated a single syllable to many notes = Melismtic Red letters indicate new line of Latin chant RELIGIOUS LIFE (CATHOLIC)  Music for the office usually found in an ANTIPHONER.  LIBER USUALIS: a compendium of plainchant still printed today.  THE OFFICES: services performed throughout the day that initially used exclusively chant o MARTINS: sung before daybreak o LAUDS: performed at sunrise o PRIME: 6 A.M. o TERCE: 9 A.M. o SEXT: Noon o NONE: 3P.M. o VESPERS: Sunset (only office that allowed for polyphony) Compline: directly after Vespers o COMPLINE: directly after Vespers THE SEASONS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH:  ADVVENT: begins fourth Sunday before Christmas  CHRISTMAS: (December 25 ), including the following 12 days until  EPIPHANY: (January 6 ), and the following weeks  PRE-LENTEN SEASON: begins nine weeks before Easter (date is moveable)  LENT: forty days before Easter. Begins on Ash Wednesday  EASTERTIDE: Easter until forty days after culminating in  PENTECOST: (seven weeks after Easter)  TRINITY OR “ORDINARY TIME”: from the first Sunday after Pentecost to the beginning of Advent THE (HIGH) MASS CELEBRATED ON SUNDAY AND HIHG HOLY DAYS: 1. PROPER: changes every day 2. ORDINARY: always the same a. KYRIE (only movement in Greek, (everything else in Latin) b. GLORIA c. CREDO d. SANCTUS e. ANGUS DEI f. ITA MISSA EST SECULAR COURT MUSIC:  Composers set music dealing with; o Courtly love, o Heroism, o Pain, o Loss SECULAR MONODY:  Jongleur or minstrels  TROBADOURS: spoke Provencal or l’angue d’oc  TROUVERES: North of France (spoke language d’oil)  Jeu de Robin et Marion Adam de la Halle  Minnesingers / Meistersingers –present day Germany  “Finders of song” HILDEGARD VON BINGEN (1098-1179)  Born into a nobility of RHEINHESSEN in Western Germany (Bermersheim)  Promised to the church at the age of; at the age of 154 was ‘bound’ to the new local Benedictine monastery. o Stone cell (‘tomb’) shared with one other woman. o Could see out through a single window.  Founder and abbess of the convent at Rupertsberg (nr. Bingen) in Germany (1147-1150) HER WORK:  PROPHETIC POWERS AND VISIONS starting at age 5. Later known as the “SIBYL OF THE RHINE”.  Most famous works, SCIVIAS (know the ways), describes 26 visions.  1160-1170 undertook 4 PREACHING MISSIONS throughout Germany.  Lengthy correspondence with and was consulted by POPES, EMPERORS, SECULAR AND SCCLESIASTICAL LEADERS.  Multiple efforts to CANONIZE her have been put forward but never been successful.  Work took 10 YEARS to write.  VOLMAR was her AMANUENSIS: someone who writes down thoughts  EARLY 1150’s she began collecting her POETRY but likely settings themselves dates to the 1140’s. o Most pieces remain extant in the modern day location of her convent.  Her music extends the normal ranges and text settings of plainchant. 75- note-long Melisma’s! (She was a bit of a composition re
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