Music Midterm Review
FROM THE RENAISSANCE:
1. Josquin des Prez, The Cricket
2. William Byrd, Sing Joyfully
3. (Not on MyMusicLab but on the Naxos Playlist -- and elsewhere...):
4. Weelkes, Since Robin Hood
5. Arcadelt, Il bianco e dolce cigno
6. Palestrina, Kyrie from the Missa Papae Marcelli
FROM THE BAROQUE (and ALL from MyMusicLab)
1. Claudio Monteverdi, Orpheus selection from Act II
2. Henry Purcell, Dido and Aeneas Overture and Act 1, nos. 1-4 (Any one
portion of these two excerpts is fair game) OPERA
3. Barbara Strozzi, Revenge aria
***For each, you should be able to name composer (first and last names), title (in
English, though foreign language titles also accepted), era, and significance (of
MELODY: single line of notes heard in succession as unit
CONTOURS: a rising and falling variation pattern, as in music and intonation
HARMONY: 2 notes; two or more notes heard as a single entity. Simultaneous
sounding of two or more pitches.
CHORDS: three or more notes sounding simultaneously
A melody can be harmonized (using chords) in more than one way, our harmonic
choices are infinite “and harmonic choices can be an early way to make a
statement/change the meaning of
PITCH: Defined in hertz. Highness or lowness of a pitch based on FREQUENCIES
(number of oscillations per second). A440 # that which sounds when something
vibrates at 440Hz.
DYNAMICS: loudness or softness of the music. Based on AMPLITUDE. Basic
notational values (all Italian terms) p (piano) = soft, f (forte) = loud . TIMBRE: Distinct sound quality of a given instrument/voice. Defined by the
overtones in a sound wave. (each instrument/voice will have its own distinct
sounds wave like a fingerprint)
TEXTURE: relationships between the different components of a given passage.
1. MONOPHONIC: do they all sound at the same time and do exactly the same
thing without and accompaniment
2. HOMOPHONIC: is there a single melody line with accompaniment (a star
voice with some supporting roles)
3. POLYPHONIC: are there multiple melodies of equal importance occurring at
the same time
FORM: all music is in some way organized through time, even if that is the complete
rejection of organization. The pattern of organization (or lack thereof) is refered to
as form. Three standard formal strategies;
WORD PAINTING: Composers often use music to reinforce/conflict what a text is
GENRE: Categories music into related groups like:
Rock, indie rock, classical, folk, jazz. In western classical music, we often categorize
1. INSTRUMENTATION: (string quartet, symphony, piano, opera, mass..)
2. SOCIAL FUNCTION:
THE OFFICES: services performed throughout the day that initially used exclusively
MARTINS: sung before daybreak
LAUDS: performed at sunrise
PRIME: 6 A.M.
TERCE: 9 A.M.
VESPERS: Sunset (only office that allowed for polyphony) Compline:
directly after Vespers
COMPLINE: directly after Vespers
ORGANUM: composed chant for more than one part.
ORGANUM TRIPLUM: 3 voices involved all doing different things
DISCANT CLAUSULAE: parts of chant and start inserting them into other chants that
TRECENTO: (anything that happened in the 1300 in Italy) TRIPLE METER: (1-2-3, 1-2-3)
Spans 1000 years, from Fall of Roman EmpireRenaissance.
Roman Catholic Church Dominated (Music was a way to serve God)
IMPORTANT HISTORICAL INFLUENCES:
Western empire: Rome (home base)
Eastern empire, Byzantium: Constantinople (home base)
800: Charlemagne crowned as Emperor (French)
936: Otto I establishes the Holy Roman Empire
1095: Beginning of the Crusades
GRAND RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS: NOTRE DAME
Pass along a liturgical message, especially to the illiterate.
Reinforce a particular narrative.
Inspire as an allegory of the power of the divine.
Likewise, plainchant was meant to transfer a message and inspire
worshipers through its sound.
Question of MORTALITY (paid church, supported religious power, kings,
bring you into this lifestyle)
POPE GREGORY (540-604) Claimed the Holy Spirit, in the form of a dove,
gave him the melodies of plainchant.
ANONYMOUS COMPOSERS (800 CE) (monks, priests, nuns) developed and
codified a repertory of plainchant of which there were many traditions:
o Gregorian Chant
Illuminated manuscript: NEUMES
Text is always in Latin,
Made out of gold
Created by at least 3 scribes it is a multi-person job.
Illustrations were a story, meant to teach something, an added element to
Were produced it was a modern-day Germany Likely noted by trained scribes, monks with specific knowledge of music
notation and with great artistic talent
Every large religious establishment would have monks on hand who would
produce manuscripts such as this.
The detail and richness of each manuscript precluded the opportunity to
mass-produce and distribute these books. They would have been very
valuable and specific to the needs of a certain church and its musical
EX: The first letter of the chant is enlarged and has illustrations incorporated
in it, which coincide with the story behind the chant itself.
READING PLAINCHANT MUSIC:
One note per syllable = syllable setting of plainchant
Earliest system of pitch notation indicated CONTOUR but not specific pitches
nor durations. This system suggested the performers largely memorized the
Red lines indicated a single syllable to many notes = Melismtic Red letters
indicate new line of Latin chant
RELIGIOUS LIFE (CATHOLIC)
Music for the office usually found in an ANTIPHONER.
LIBER USUALIS: a compendium of plainchant still printed today.
THE OFFICES: services performed throughout the day that initially used
o MARTINS: sung before daybreak
o LAUDS: performed at sunrise
o PRIME: 6 A.M.
o TERCE: 9 A.M.
o SEXT: Noon
o NONE: 3P.M.
o VESPERS: Sunset (only office that allowed for polyphony) Compline:
directly after Vespers
o COMPLINE: directly after Vespers
THE SEASONS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH:
ADVVENT: begins fourth Sunday before Christmas
CHRISTMAS: (December 25 ), including the following 12 days until
EPIPHANY: (January 6 ), and the following weeks
PRE-LENTEN SEASON: begins nine weeks before Easter (date is moveable)
LENT: forty days before Easter. Begins on Ash Wednesday
EASTERTIDE: Easter until forty days after culminating in
PENTECOST: (seven weeks after Easter)
TRINITY OR “ORDINARY TIME”: from the first Sunday after Pentecost to the
beginning of Advent THE (HIGH) MASS CELEBRATED ON SUNDAY AND HIHG HOLY DAYS:
1. PROPER: changes every day
2. ORDINARY: always the same
a. KYRIE (only movement in Greek, (everything else in Latin)
e. ANGUS DEI
f. ITA MISSA EST
SECULAR COURT MUSIC:
Composers set music dealing with;
o Courtly love,
Jongleur or minstrels
TROBADOURS: spoke Provencal or l’angue d’oc
TROUVERES: North of France (spoke language d’oil)
Jeu de Robin et Marion Adam de la Halle
Minnesingers / Meistersingers –present day Germany
“Finders of song”
HILDEGARD VON BINGEN (1098-1179)
Born into a nobility of RHEINHESSEN in Western Germany (Bermersheim)
Promised to the church at the age of; at the age of 154 was ‘bound’ to the new
local Benedictine monastery.
o Stone cell (‘tomb’) shared with one other woman.
o Could see out through a single window.
Founder and abbess of the convent at Rupertsberg (nr. Bingen) in Germany
PROPHETIC POWERS AND VISIONS starting at age 5. Later known as the
“SIBYL OF THE RHINE”.
Most famous works, SCIVIAS (know the ways), describes 26 visions.
1160-1170 undertook 4 PREACHING MISSIONS throughout Germany.
Lengthy correspondence with and was consulted by POPES, EMPERORS,
SECULAR AND SCCLESIASTICAL LEADERS.
Multiple efforts to CANONIZE her have been put forward but never been
Work took 10 YEARS to write.
VOLMAR was her AMANUENSIS: someone who writes down thoughts EARLY 1150’s she began collecting her POETRY but likely settings
themselves dates to the 1140’s.
o Most pieces remain extant in the modern day location of her convent.
Her music extends the normal ranges and text settings of plainchant. 75-
note-long Melisma’s! (She was a bit of a composition re