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Music Midterm Review PRT3

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MUSC 1060
Kimberly Francis

Music Midterm Review VOCABULARY:  Basso Continuo  Monody  Recitative  Mean-tone temperament  Ornamentation  Modality to tonality  Chromaticism  HARMONIC importance BAROQUE ERA:  ART: several musical instruments: A musical Interlude, Jon Verkolje (ca. 1674)  “BAROQUE”: ornate extravagant o Originally used as a pejorative (coined in 19 century, used as a music th term in the late 20 ) o 1734 insult on Jean Phillip Raneau an opera “Hippolyte & Ancie  Movement, contrast, EUROPE  SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION:  1610, GALILEO: the starry messenger o Argued the EARTH CIRCLED THE SUN  Views fundamentally altered how to universe was viewed  Part of the rising tide of SECULAR THOUGHT o 1630 brought before the Roman Inquisition o 1632 Found “vehemently suspected of HERESY” o Forced to recant and lived remainder of is life under HOUSE ARREST  RENE DESCARTES (Cartesian period) o Jesuit-trained (France) o Founder of MODERN PHILOSOPHY and mathematics believed in objective knowledge and representation o “I think therefore I am” o Made a series of criteria to study the science  Sir Francis Bacon RELIGIOUS WARS/BATTLES OVER PROTESTANT VS. CATHOLIC RELIGIONS  1628-1648, THIRTY YEAR WAR o destroys Germans lands in particular  1643-1715 rule of king Louis XIV in France o BRUTAL WARFARE: was supported and fed, was by taking from yours and other countries civilians o VERSAILLIES is his legacy, he paid the best musicians and composers to play there o St. Peter’s square is another BAROQUE ARCHITECHTURE COLONIES/CAPITALISM/PATRONAGE  Mayflower, 1620  Colonization (England settling in India, etc) o Many of the settlers want to practice their own religion  Discovery of north America  IDEA OF EMPIRE, HOME COUNTRY, EMPIRICAL SPACE  PIRATES, fighting for control (Atlantic)  PATRONAGE: who’s paying the composers and why? o Normally very wealthy rulers o King Louis o Everyone’s chasing the rich patrons o There is so much Bach music because of where he worked, (he got paid) There are two major STYLIST DEVELOPMENT: 1. Renaissance polyphony and “balance” gave way to highly ornate, decorative, complex piecesfreer, more unpredictable forms 2. Homophonic textures = foregrounding of a single voice with accompaniment ***there is no greater shift in music than from renaissance too baroque MOST IMPOTANT:  Affect representing the passion and emotions through music  The doctorin of affection  You can look at it and see what emotion they were going for FUGUE:  A compositional treatment or process**  Way of treating subject(theme)  Bach is our master of fugue writing OPERA and CONCERTO:  Concerto is where a soloist comes out, highly demanding very complex, advanced performance and then a accompanying ensemble THE IDEA OF TEMPERMENT:  Musical comma  440Hz brig it to 880 Hz (12 octaves higher)  Equal temperament (argues that our keyboard will bee slightly out of tune)  Two mode system move away from modality and get tonality  Gets rid of anything else keep the Ionian (major) and Aerlian (becomes our minor)  Basso continuo fundamentally derives to baroque era, arrives with it and dies with it o bass controlled music GIVANNI PIERLUIGI DA PALESTRINA (1525/1526-1594)  Named from his birthplace, a small town near Rome  Worked under Pope Julius III  Spent most of his career as CHOIRMASTER at JULIAN CHAPEL ST. PETERS  Sang in PAPAL CHAPEL until he was married  Palestrina was commissioned to revise the official chant books to conform to the new liturgy and purge the chant of “barbarisms” obscurities, contrarieties, and superfluities Palestrina style, “stile antico” 16 century counterpoint MELODIES  Clear,  stepwise,  conjunct melodies,  function almost like chant. COUNTERPOINT AND DISSONANCE:  Conforms to Zarlino’s teachings  Almost entirely in duple meter  Strong beats all contain consonances (expecting suspension, which are also treated with care)  Dissonances are approached and left by step (passing tones, neighbor tones)  Careful handling of cambiata figures  Unique use of variety of spacings  Clarity of text declamation National pride was illustrated through culture, political and economical terms. Baroque Opera  OPERA: a drama sung from beginning to end  Thoughts and emotions expressed by singing: ones character = one voice Homophonica texture  Easier to understand the text restore balance between text and music  Basso continuo accomplishment. Chords played by lute, harpsichors, etc. Bass line played by cello, bassoon etc. FLORENTINE CAMERATA: (The First One) 1570-1592  Classicist – Girolamo Mei *** primary theorist behind what greek music sounded like  Theorist – Vincenzo Galilei : came up with Harmonic syntax  Writer- Ottavio Rinuccini: translate the greek myths into Italian so they can be operas  Count Giovanni Baroi  Composer- performer- Jacopo Peri and Julio caccini : composers were also actors they were the DIVAS The competition for Count Giovanni Baroi: Jacopo Corsi  Because of them both wanting to be the first to do this we got Opera. CLAUDIO MONTEVERDI  Transitional figure  He confirmed the theme  1567-1643  career straddled the renaissance and Baroque Eras- mastered both old and new textures  He served at the court of Mantua where Orpheus was first performed in 1607  1613: He became music director at St. Mark’s Basillica in Venice  1630’s: He composed works for the new public opera house in Venice  VERY FIRST OPERA HOUSES WERE IN VENICE OPENED IN THAE 1630’S Types of Composition:  recitatives,  arias,  choruses,  duets,  trios,  sextets, etc. RECITATIVE: moves the action along- a speaking style of singing. Not very elaborate musically- words projects clearly simple accomplishment Aria: Character(s) pauses to reflect Musically elaborate; often virtuosic. Accomplishment does not overshadow the singer. ORPHEUS: The Story: His beloved Euridice been poisoned by a snake. She ends up in the underworld. Orpheus sings to persuade the guardians of the underw
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