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MUSC 1060 final exam review

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MUSC 1060
Saba Safdar

WEEK ONE Melody: Single line of notes heard in succession as a coherent unit. ANote: Is the smallest of music, the building block of which larger structures are created. Phrases: The musical ‘sentences’before the ending breath. Can be long or short and end with a ‘ musical completeness’. Cadence:Acadence is like a period in a sentence. It signals the end of a unit or phrase that can stand on its own.Abrief stopping point at which the music pauses THE SCIENCE OF MELODY Types of melodic motion ­ Conjunct Motion> the notes move smoothly and in a stepwise fashion in which the notes are very close together. ­ Disjunct Motion> uses large leaps from note to note. Acoustics- The science of sound, how it is produced, transmitted and perceived. Determines the vibration in motion by these actions determine the pitch and volume of the sound. Pitch- The position of the sound on a range from very low (bass register) to very high (the soprano register). Sound wave- (amplitude, wavelength and frequency) Wavelength- The distance between the peaks of each wave. Frequency- The number of known wavelengths in one second. (The higher the frequency the higher the pitch and vice versa) Dynamics- The volume of sound. What makes the sound louder or softer? Amplitude- The size of each wave. (Determines dynamics) The Major Mode- corresponds to the scale of solfege. Melodies using these notes are happier and brighter. The Minor Mode- Sounds darker, more somber and less optimistic. The third and sixth notes (Mi, Lah) are slightly lower making this sound. The notes of any given melody typically derive from the notes of a scale. (Doh, re,) ­ Octave> in a scale a series of notes that move stepwise and cover a complete span (8 notes) is called an Octave. OR The interval between two notes with the same name (High c, Low c) ­ Interval> The distance between each note. (Whole steps and Half Steps) RHYTHM Rhythm – The ordering of music through time. Meter – Underlying pattern of beats that maintains itself consistently throughout a work. Triple Meter – One accented (strong) beat followed by two unaccented (weaker) beats. Ex. LONG short short. Measure – Singular rhythmic values. (The first note of each measure is usually the strongest) Duple Meter – Two beats in each measure (1-2| 1-2| 1-2) HARMONY Harmony – The sound created by multiple notes played or sung simultaneously. The melody would stay the same it is the notes above or below that create the harmony. Fact Harmony is normally based of the primary key, the tonic, and the harmony would  usually come back down (or up) to the tonic in order to create a sense of closure. Chord – three or more notes played at the same moment. A melodic line can be  accompanied by a number of chords that change as the melody progresses. TEXTURE Texture – A function of the number and general relationship of musical lines to  one another and can range from thick to thin. Monophonic – A single melody line with no accompaniment. (Mono­Single) Homophonic – The melody is played with a supporting accompaniment. (Most  common from of accompaniment). Sounding the same.  Polyphonic – Multiple melodies that hold equal importance. (Poly­ many)  Furthermore they can be different together but sound pleasingly to the ear.  TIMBRE Timbre – The color of the music and the character of the sound. The range of  timbres is enormous and varies from instrument to instrument and voice to voice. DYNAMICS Dynamics – A term used to indicate the volume of sound, ranging from very soft  to very loud. Fact Dynamics can change very suddenly or very gradually. Volume is a relative quality: what  seems loud to one may be barley audible to another and vice versa.    Judging Volume; Musical terms Pianissimo (pp) –Very Soft Piano (p) – Soft Mezzo Piano (mp) – Medium Soft Mezzo Forte (mf) – Medium Loud Forte (f) – Loud Fortissimo (ff) – Very Loud FORM Form – The structure of music. The ways in which music’s individual units are put together. Three Strategies for Form ­ Repetition> saying things the exact same way ­ Variation> saying the same thing in a different way ­ Contrast> saying a completely different thing EX. AAABAABC AABCABAC (musical phrases) GENRE Genre is the category of a given work( symphony, sonata, song) determined by a combination of it’s social function and it’s performance. WEEK TWO THE MIDDLEAGES ­ Covered almost a thousand years from 476CE to the beginning of the early fifteenth century during the beginning of the Renaissance era. ­ The music of this time reflected many social functions both sacred and secular. Its purpose was to serve God. ­ The church dominated the cultural life during this time. ­ Gregorian Chant (plainchant) consisted of monophonic melodies sung by a single voice or a choir in unison. ­ Like all music and arts of the time plainchant projected the words of the liturgy in a manner that was both clear and moving. ­ Polyphony became increasingly popular in godly music from the tenth century onward. MUSIC FOR SACRED PLACES ­ Sacred music had the purpose of enhancing texts being sung and inspire the worshippers with the beauty of their sound.
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