Study Guides (248,413)
Canada (121,518)
Music (93)
MUSC 2140 (15)

Summary unit 9.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

MUSC 2140
Howard Spring

Unit 9(Miles Davis and John Coltrane) Modes  a sort of scale—not a major or minor scale…a sort of a combination of major and minor notes.  there are 7 different modes Modal Jazz  a modal piece does not have a lot of chord changes (in contrast to bebop)  this is so the soloist does not have to consider implications of different chords for chosen notes  Usually have 1-2 chords so the soloist can focus on linear + modal aspects of improve  ie// Miles Davis’ “So What”  (there is a video clip under the Musical Terms Unit 9 demo-ing Modes)  Fewer chords, less concentrated harmonies  Emerged as a specific technique in reaction to busyness of bop harmony *Textbook Notes* Miles Davis(1926-1991)  “The Sorcerer”  5 Major Changes Davis Made to Jazz 1. 1949-1950-the “cool Jazz movement” (ch 12) 2. 1954-“Walkin”—an impetus for development of hard bop, an “antidote” to cool jazz’s delicacy 3. 1957-1960—3 major collaborations with Gil Evans enlarged the scope of jazz 4. 1959-Kind of Blue replaced bebop’s harmonic complexity with melody and nuance 5. 1969-Bitches Brew—initiated jazz-rock fusion(ch 17), shifting focus from melody to rhythm  From 1949-1969, Davis redefined harmony, melody, rhythm and instrumentation  Trumpet playing remained consistent  Personality—belligerent, independent, reclusive at times, distant, unflappable, romantic charismatic Childhood  Took private trumpet lessons from St Louis symphony member  Sat in with Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker—he ended up dropping out of Juilliard to study with Parker 1945-1949  1945—Hired by Parker to play in his quintet o Soloed on “Now’s the Time” and “Billie’s Bounce o Replaced by Gillespie for “Ko-Ko”, due to insufficient technique o Found difficulty standing out under the shadow of Gillespie and Parker’s virtuosic playing  Davis also toured with Benny Carter and Gillespie (big bands)  Many felt he could not match the talent of Gillespie, Fats Navarro  1949-Left Parkers quintet, started playing with musicians who would create the “birth of cool” movement Style  Davis preferred the middle register (rather than high), with focus on timbre and melody— playing fewer and longer notes  Tried to compensate with complexity (“Sippin’ at Bells”) with lots of chord changes  Recognized for emotional and rhythmic restraint of solos 1954  After leaving Parker’s quintet, Davis fell into a heroin addiction for 4 years  During addiction, completed Birth of Cool  1954, stopped heroin  Recorded with Prestige Records—collaborated with: Thelonious Monk, Sonny Rollins, JJ Johnson, Milt Jackson, Lucky Thompson. Rhythm Section: pianist Horace Silver, bassist Percy Heath, drummer Kenny Clarke  Recordings revealed: a street-wise musician, evenly phrased solos, meaningful silences  “Walkin”-12-bar blues, with no high-note/speed-demon techniques of bebop trumpet  Harmon Mute-held in place by a cork ring, forcing the musicians entire air column into the mute to produce a thin, humming sound 1955  Signed to Columbia after a successful show at the Newport (Rhode Island) Jazz Festival  Round About Midnight features an iconic cover—Davis photographed under a red lens, wearing dark glasses, embracing his trumpet  Davis’ band on the album: tenor sax-John Coltrane, pianist—Red Garland, bassist— Paul Chambers, drummer—Philly Joe Jones  Notable about the album: 1. Davis solos and Coltrane’s virtuosity contrasted just as Davis and Parker had, this time favouring Davis 2. Rhythm section assertive independence—due to Jones insistent attack and Chambers authoritative pulse/harmonic skill 3. Combined original pieces with pop songs from 1920’s + or borrowed from broadway.  Davis opened up the repertory of jazz by revamping old broadway songs 1957  Second Columbia release: Miles Ahead-an orchestral album arranged by Gil Evans. -19 piece ensemble -french horns, tuba, flutes, piccolos and harp -Davis the only soloist -There were links between the sections (never done before) to make it seem there were no breaks -Splicing and overdubbing used to compensate for lack of rehersal  Davis’ quintet disbanded  He visited Europe, expecting to play shows; instead, he was offered a film score -He was told to improvise -he improvised on scales instead of chords—his “eureka” moment -D minor scale 1958  Recruited Cannonball Adderley (alto Sax), his old rhythm section (Garland, Chambers and Jones) and formed a sextet  Recorded Milestones using techniques used in the film score  He then recorded a Gershwin opera and a Jazz/Spanish classical/folk fusion record(1960) with Gil Evans, which appealed to those who didn’t have patience for long jazz improvisations  Released Kind of Blue between the Gershwin and the Spanish recordings Kind of Blue  Kind of Blue utilized the modal approach he used during the film score recording  Very influential to other musicians  Became one of the best selling jazz albums of all time  Showed off Davis’ laid back style and the exuberance of the sax (esp Coltrane)  Replaced Jones with Jimmy Cobb on drums Bill Evans (1929-1980)  Studied classical piano, didn’t become devoted to jazz until after college graduation  “Waltz for Debby”(1956) put him on the map as a composer  1959-worked on Kind of Blue with Davis, released his own 3 album  Voicing-refers to the way notes or instruments are combined  Evans developed an original approach to voicing harmonies, finding ways to modulate from one chord to another by thinking of the chords as loosely connected to their roots  Formed a trio with bassist Scott LaFaro and drummer Paul Motian  The trio put more emphasis on the bassist than previous similar trio compositions  Quartal harmonies-built on fourths rather than thirds—helped to define the modal achievement of Kind of Blue John Coltrane(1926-1967)  Tenor Sax  Considered the leader of avant-garde jazz of the 1960s  Made no significant recordings until 1955 (although he was the same age as Davis)  Sheets of Sound—rapid-fire attack in an attempt to play every note in every chord  He had an obsession with scales  Criticized for harsh tone and lengthy solos 1957  After being fired by Davis twice for drug use, Coltrane cleaned up his act  Spent the year working with Thelonius Monk 1959  Signed with Atlantic Records  Recorded with Davis on Kind of Blu
More Less

Related notes for MUSC 2140

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.