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JAZZ Unit 7.docx

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MUSC 2140
Howard Spring

Unit 7 History of Jazz Review (Chapter 11 txt) Jam sessions could run for hours, went downhill (hill didn’t want to let they had cutting contests where Clarke go to being with) players would duel against each other until someone gave up. Giving up This all took place during WWII they called his drum explosions as meant you had more to learn with “dropping bombs” your education. It was a way for players to relax. Generally used to Max Roach, Art Blakely- drummers keep inexperienced musicians out who adopted this style using obstacles like playing very fast or play in a different key Over the drum beat the soloists played disorienting and unpredictable Dropping Bombs at Minton’s rhythms. Fast notes ending abruptly Minton’s playhouse, in Manhattan. with scat syllables Drumming styles changed with Old musicians didn’t like it bebop. Pianists dropped stride technique and went for coming- a rhythmically Kenny Clarke technique developed when he played with Teddy Hill’s unpredictable skein of accompanying chords that complemented the swing band. He shifted the pulse to drummer’s strokes and added a layer the ride cymbal this made the sound more light and flexible for a to the rhythmic mix. foundation and the bass drum was Guitarists were more syncopated able to fill in holes in the bands now rather than just chunking away arrangements. on chords. Wasn’t accepted at first, the band let Bass remained the same role. him go but then he played for the Jimmy Blanton (Duke Ellington band) playhouse with Hill after his band was matched by Oscar pettiford. In jam sessions bassists were asked to the basis for the revolutionary view take a solo. of bebop. Nobody plays those changes Swing era: Bebop was famous for its complex Black bands prevented by racial dissonant harmonies. prejudice from two jobs, prime time radio show with a commercial Art Tatum made pieces complicated making other musicians shake their sponsor and job at a major hotel ballroom or dance hall in New York heads in wonder Body and soul illustrates how to use dense chromatic harmonies in Thus black bands were forced onto popular song. the road on rattletrap buses. Challenging in bebop was translating They had to eat at coloured dissonant harmonies into vocabulary restaurants, sit in the filthy Jim Crow all musicians could share. car of a railroad, and avoid eye contact with white women. These The new harmonies fastened onto conditions caused musicians to be dissonances like tritones in the bitter. Thus most talented musicians middle ages it was known as devil quite swing bands out of both music and during the bebop era it was known as the flattened fifth. exhaustion and disgust. Keeping track of the harmony was a Bebop was a way to find some energy to carry on their music outside the pain, and demanding task. Thus system. It was subversive uppity players had to KNOW what to play daring and hell bent on social change. not FEEL what they were doing Kenny Clarke “whatever you go into, go into it intelligently… the idea was On the road to wake up, look around you, there’s something to do.” Race and economic issues were driving musicians out of swing into the unknown future. These formed Charlie Parker (1920-1955) endlessly varied riffs behind soloists during head arrangements. The most gifted alto saxophonist in jazz history. Drugs eventually took over his life. He found a network of musicians Nickname is “bird”. On the road a car similarly attuned to what he once hit a chicken he went back to get it then when it died they ate it so they called the real advance New York style of modern jazz. Among them called him “yarbird” was Dizzy Gillespie. Grew up in Kansas City touring with a local territory band led by Jay McShann. Dizzy Gillespie (1917-1993) At first played baritone in high school John Birks “Dizzy” Gillespie. marching band. He took up His solo lines crackle in the upper saxophone teaching himself to play register, accelerating to speeds not songs by ear. But he sucked at it though possible, matching Charlie During the summer in Ozarks he Parker note for note. learned how to play fluently in every 50 year career key. Lester Young was his model and by the time he returned to Kansas his He was the pied piper of modern jazz. rhythm was supercharged. He pulled the style into shape like a master craftsman He then got a spot in Jay McShann Orchestra. Grew up in Cheraw South Carolina which his pops was a bricklayer. He After a car accident he began to taught himself trumpet so badly his become addicted to morphine and neck muscles protruded (frog like) heroin. when he played. He was bluesy and modern Got a scholarship in North Carolina Showed that he can be a model where he studied both trumpet and citizen in a swing band, blending in Piano. the saxophone section and devising By the age of 18 his soloing style and Salt Peanuts introduced a new side to excellent sight reading had made him music with verbal inanity covering the a valuable addition to Swing Era avant-garde complexity trumpet sections. 52 Street He was employed by Cab Calloway Parker and Gillespie crossed paths in Orchestra in 1939 1940s Nickname Dizzy came from his temperament and wicked sense of Gillespie focused on fluidity of parker’s phrases humor. He was unpredictable and brought it to the bandstand with the “Charlie brought the rhythm the way Calloway band, practical jokes he played the notes”, irritating everyone with his wild solos. They worked together in 1942 when He was fired cause a spitball hit Earl Hines hired them for his big Calloway while he was soloing and band. Two years later they Joined thought it was dizzy so kicked him Billy Eckstein’s band who was Hines out. This allowed him to be a vocalist. freelance artist earning a living though anything possible including Gillespie was the music director small combo jam-sessions that led to By the end of 1944 Gillespie and bebop. Parker had quit the Eckstein band, Miles Davis says “dizzy was bebop’s and turned to jam session style small group as the best way to present head and hands the one who kept it their music to the public. all together.” nd He had been trained on piano and Bebop arrived on 52 street through Gillespie. It was a tighter version of trumpet at school so he was aware of what was played at Minton’s only at harmonic possibilities of bebop. The the beginning of a tune, where one adapted dissonant chords into his might expect to hear a familiar compositions. harmonized melody, the horns play a Salt Peanuts is a rework of I got bare theme in disjointed rhythms, Rhythm. confusing those not already familiar with the Harlem jam sessions and offering no clue as to what was to EMBRACEABLE YOU: come. Was recorded in 1948, he substitutes It became a way of transmuting the musician’s blues and standards into a the melody of the song with a pop song in its place (a table in the new repertory. corner) Bird on Records Parker plays with softness and 1945 first bebop recordings. earnestness that beautifully captures Emergence of small independent the song romantically but barley record labels. touches the melody In the United States the melody of a tune is under copyright its chord NOWS THE TIME progression is not leaving
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