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Final

MUSC 2150 NOTES.pdf

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Music
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MUSC 2150
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Shannon Carter

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Unit 1: pg 1-15, 16-33 Studying Rock - Elvis  came  on  the  scene  in  the  1950’s  starting  a  shocking  movement  that  the  Beatles,  Madonna,   and Prince continued in the coming decades - Term  “rock  and  roll”  is  generally  used  to  describe  the  first  wave  of  Rock  from  1954-1959 o Others  term  “rock”  as  music  after  1964 Rock History in the Media - Magazines such as Rolling Stone and Mojo, books, and cable networks such as VH-1 and MTV take the history of rock and bring it to the general public, promoting interest in rock history - In many cases, information found in the popular media is designed primarily for entertainment and can be skewed and unreliable due to the majority of revenue for these outlets being brought in through advertising The Fan Mentality - Fans of rock music listen frequently to the music of a particular artist, group or style and gather interesting facts about both the artists and the music - When  it  comes  to  studying  music,  it  is  important  to  keep  the  “fan  mentality”  at  bay,  as  fans  tend   to ignore artists they do not like, which create an imbalanced learning curve Chart Positions - Charts help us draw general conclusions about the general popularity of a song or album at the time it was released - Charts can also be useful to compare certain songs on the way they fared on different charts (ex. Song may be #1 on country music chart, but only #5 on Billboard chart) - Charts help to avoid the fan mentality - However, charts are not precision instruments for measuring a song or albums success, and they do not accurately reflect the influence of some songs - They are the best instruments to judge listeners changing tastes, even if they are flawed - Record Industry awards gold records for sales of 500,000 units and platinum awards for over 1 million units sold which is a more accurate measurement of popularits of an album or single Four themes of Rock Development - Four themes (outlines throughout the chapters of the text): o social/political/ cultural o race/class/gender o development of music business o development of technology - Music business has changed dramatically since the 1950s, as the rock element of business has grown - Rise of radio in 1920s or TV after WW2 contributes to the development of music technology as well as culture - Race class and gender are essential to understanding the origins and stereotypes of rock Tracking the Popularity Arc - In the 1970s few New Yorkers were aware of the emergence of the punk rock scene until it took spotlight in 1978 - The rise of punk from a small, regional underground scene to mainstream pop culture, and its subsequent  retreat  follows  a  pattern  called  “popularity  arc” o Most specific rock styles follow this template  How did this style arise?  When did it peak in popularity?  Does it still exist in culture somewhere? What to listen for in Rock - Musical Form: the structure and organization of different sections in a song or piece - Instrumentation: the types of instruments used in a given recording can drastically change the way a song sounds and allow for variation within a performance - Rhythm: the ways musical sounds are organized in time - Beat: regular rhythmic pulse - Meter: the way of organizing rhythm and beats, how many beats per measure, how beats may be subdivided o Simple meter: when each beat is evenly divided into two parts o Compound meter: when each beat is evenly divided into 3 parts o Duple: meter grouped into 2 parts o Triple: meter grouped into three beats o Quadruple: meter grouped into 4 beats o Note: if time signature has /8 it is compound, if it has /4 it is simple o Quadruple compound time is thought  of  as  “shuffle”  rhythm  (12/8) - Verse: section with repeating music and non-repeating lyrics - Simple verse form: employs only verses - Chorus: section that repeats the same music and lyrics in each presentation - Rocket 88 1. Rocket 88 2. Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats 3. First rock and roll song 4. This song is in a quadruple meter; each bar is divided into four beats. You can count the beats ONE-two-Three-four in time with the bass on the recording. Beat one is the strongest, beat three is the second strongest and beats two and four are weak. a. The meter is simple because each beat is divided into two parts; you can hear this most clearly by counting along with the saxophones from 00:50. b. The song is played with a shuffle rhythm; the beats are divided into two, but the two parts are unequal: ONE-(and)-uh-two-(and)-uh-Three-(and)-uh-four-(and)-uh. The word “and”  in  brackets  is  silent.  This  type  of  rhythm  is  also  called  “swing  rhythm.” 5. The instrumentation of this song includes electric guitar, drums, piano, and saxophones. Work to distinguish each sound in the mix. 6. Musical form: simple verse 7. Song features: first rock and roll song, actually written by ike turner, 12 Bar Blues - Common structural pattern found in rhythm and blues, rock and roll, many styles of jazz - Consists of 12 groups of 4 beat measures o Falls into 3 groups of 4: measure length, phrasing and lyrics, chord structure o First four measures: phrase; feature a lyric repeated in the subsequent 4 measures; the lyric in the final four measures often complete the thought begun in the initial phrase  Question-question-answer o First line in each verse is repeated in the second phrase, with the third phrase completing the thought with a new line - Doo-Wop progression: most often associated with doo-wop of 1950s o Can form the underlining structures of songs line Sh-Boom, a chord on every beat forming a harmonic pattern that repeats through the entire song except the bridge Sh-Boom 1. Sh-Boom 2. The Chords 3. Doo-Wop 4. Quadruple meter, simple, shuffle rhythm 5. Instrumentation: drum, electric guitar, saxophone, bass, piano, solo vocals, lead vocals 6. Musical form: simple verse with interludes and a bridge 7. Song features: The record rose to #3 on the rhythm-and-blues charts and #9 on the pop charts (#2 and #5, respectively, on the list of Most Played Jukebox Hits), an almost unheard of feat for a crossover hit at that time. The Chords were also the first R&B group in the 1950s to put song in the Pop Top 10 Heartbreak Hotel 1. Heartbreak hotel 2. Elvis 3. Genre: blues 4. meter/ rhythm: quadruple compound, shuffle in four 5. Instrumental: bass, piano, guitar, drums 6. Musical form: simple verse 7. Song  features:  heavy  use  of  echo  and  reverb,  elvis’  first  ever  gold  record AABA Form - Associated with mainstream pop before the birth of rock and roll - 32 bar scheme, most common formal pattern in Tin Pan Alley songs o First 2 bar phrases are similar (A-A), third is different (B), last is similar to the first 2 (A) - When entire AABA structure is repeated: Full Reprise - When only part of AABA form returns: partial reprise Simple Verse Chorus - Single musical pattern is used at the basis for both verses and choruses in a song - Melody portion may change from verse to chorus, while the chords underneath stay the same - Biggest difference between simple verse and simple verse chorus is the presence of a repeating set of lyrics to form a chorus Contrasting Verse Chorus - The verses and choruses of a song employ different music o May also include a bridge or section that provides a contrasting non-repeated section of music and lyrics and turns into a verse or chorus Great Balls of Fire 1. Great balls of Fire 2. Gerry Lee Lewis 3. Genre: rock and roll, country 4. Meter/ rhythm: quadruple simple 5. Instrumentation: piano, drums, bass, vocals 6. Form: AABA, full reprise 7. Song features: reached #2 on the Billboard pop charts, #3 on the R&B charts, and #1 on the th country charts, his first original recording, ranked as 96 greatest song in history The  Carter  Family  “Can  the  Circle  Be  Unbroken” Words and Music by A.P. Carter, recorded in 1935. Released before the era of country charts in the United states Form: Simple verse chorus Time Sig: 2/4 with dropped beats Instrumentation: Acoustic guitar, two female and one male voice, with one female voice taking lead during verses and choruses sung in three part harmony The  Crickets  “That’ll  Be  the  Day” Words and music by Buddy Holly, Jerry Allison and Norman Petty, produced by Norman Petty. Reahed #1 on the Billboard pop Best Selllers in Sotres chart, and #2 on the Billboard R&B Best Sellers in Stores chart in 1957 Form: Contrasing verse-chorus with instrumental bridge Time Sig: 12/8 shuffle in 4 Instrumentation: Electrical guitar, acoustic bass, drums, lead and backup vocals Simple verse: - all verses based on same music, no chorus Simple verse chorus: - verses and choruses based on same music Contrasting verse-chorus: - verses and choruses based on different music AABA: Verses and bridge based on different music; can employ full or partial reprise - The rhythmic patterns drummers play work something like the gears of a clock, with some gears moving quickly and others moving more slowly. The high-hat or ride cymbal is often used for the fastest notes, played in a regular stream. The bass and snare drums are generally played at slower intervals, and often seem to be in dialogue with one another. -Most drummers will use one pattern for verse and another for bridges or choruses, and also break the pattern  to  play  “drum  fills”  that  help  lead  the  music  from  section  to  section. -The  bass  player’s  job  is  to  “lock  in”  with  the  drummer  rhythmically,  and  to  provide  the  important  bass   notes to the chord progressions played by the guitar and or keyboards. Within the rhythm section, the bassist is a kind of bridge between the rhythmic and harmonic dimensions of the music. -The distance between the tuning of guitar and bass strings is what musicians call an octave a lower or higher version of the same note. - the rhythm guitar fleshes out the harmonic dimension by playing full chords, - the electric guitar produces little sound on its own, but can reach high volume levels when connected to an amplifier. - the rhythm guitar part complements the bass and drum parts - the singer focuses on the melodic dimension of the music - The singers job is to create melodic interest and deliver the lyrics in a convincing manner-one that does not seem contrived or unnatural in comparison with normal speech. - in order to create contrast in arrangements, an instrumental solo is often introduced somewhere past  the  midpoint  in  a  song.  This  might  be  a  saxophone  solo(the  Coasters’  “Yakety  Yak”),  a  guitar   solo(Jimi  Hendrix’s  “Purple  Haze”),  or  a  piano  solo(Jerry  Lee  Lewis  “Great  Balls of  Fire”). - Sometimes  in  arrangement  can  feature  several  solos,  as  in  “Yes’s  Roundabout”  In  all  of  these  cases,   the instrumental solist is the central focus of the music for the duration of the solo, taking the place usually reserved for the singer. The job of the rhythm section remains the same as it was during the other sections of the song. In this regard the solo is itself subordinate to the sung sections of the track. - horn sections often consist of compbination of trumpets, trombones and saxaphones used to give a tune a little more punch - strings can make an arrangement sound bigger and more elegant. Strings are often saved until late in the arrangement and are employed to give the end of the track a convincing lift. - Deep  Purples  “smoke  on  the  water”  is  a  prime  example  of  how  rock  music  from  the  mid  1960’s  is   organized in terms of instrumentation. The track follows the contrasting verse-chorus formal pattern: has a lengthy intro, then four verse-chorus pairs, then with a coda rounding the tune off. - smoke on the water begins with the electric guitar alone play a four measure blues-inflected riff that is then repeated. The third time through the guitar riff, the drums enter(0:17) first the high hat alone and on the fourth time through, the snare drum as well. - two principal approaches to thinking about what a recording represents. First is to think of the recording  as  an  “audio  snapshot”.  This  is  meant  to  reproduce  a  live  performance  as  faithfully  as   possible. This is used frequently with classical, jazz, and folk music. The second approach is to exploit the possibilities offered by the studio. These sounds would be impossible to re-create in a live setting. - the recording studio aslo allows instruments to be combined in ways that would not easily work in a natural  acoustic  setting.  This  has  been  shown  in  the  early  1970’s  in  shows  for  combining  instruments - snapshot  approach,  it  is  crucial  to  find  a  space  with  “good  acoustics” - artificially create a room sound-often referred to as ambience- via electronic means, and effect is called reverb. Most commercially available electronic reverb units (or digital plug-ins) offer settings that reproduce the sound of small rooms, medium-size rooms, large rooms, auditoriums of various sizes, churches, and number of unnatural spaces - echo occurs when sound bounces back to our ears to create two sonic images of the same event -“Where  Did  Our  Love  Go?”  offers  an  example  of  studio  reverb  when  we  hear  the  clapping.   - the  most  famous  echo  can  be  found  on  Elvis  Presley’s  Sun  recordings - the more reverb or echo, the farther away the sound seems to be - Frequency also plays a major role in recording techniques, as equalizers are used to affect the quality of most sounds. Each note played by an instrument is acalled its  “fundamental”  but  along  with   this note, every instrument also subtly produces otherm higher notes that help to form the tone, or timbre - Adjusting frequencies of sound is often called EQ which is short for equalization. A good recording is “EQ-ed| to produce a balanced distribution of frequencies. EQ can also help to highlight certain instruments, and keep instruments in a similar range from covering each other up, resulting in a crisper, clearer, more defined sound. - first decade or so, most rock music was recorded and realised in monophonic sound, mono, meaning speaker playback and no possibility of stereo imaging. - Almost all the Beatles records, for instance were original released realised in mono, with later stereo - 1960’s  however,  stereo  was  preferred format for albums and FM radio - mid 1970s complex stereo mixes had become the norm - music  projects  progressed  in  tandem  throughout  the  late  60’s  and  70’s  ,  as  listeners  purchased  more   sophisticated stereo equipment to get the full effect of the music - “Sonic  Landscaping”  is  controlling  the  way  of  hearing  the  stereo  effect.  Using  the  right  left  speaker  in   combination - Mixing: combination of ambience, EQ, stereo placement and overall volume-are controlled from a mixing board. This is used for one to record the sound to tape and secondly to playback - in classical music the job is to capture the natural ambient. - use of tape after WW2 allowed engineers to begin experimenting with multi track tape, creating recording from multiple performances. Early recording tape could store three tracks of music. As the 60  and  70’s  progressed  more  became  available - digital audio workstations became less needed when software such as GarageBand and ProTools came out, which are now considered the older mixing boards - “Josie”  by  Steely  Dan  is  structured  using  compound  AABA  form,  meaning  that  each  sections  of  the   AABA is made up of smaller verse and chorus sections. - Variuous forms of video based media-including television, films and music –videos have enabled rock musicians to reach audiences visually as well as aurally. Images are formation of cultural tastes for dance, fashion and behavior - 1980’s,  variety  shows  presented  compelling  rock  performances  on  network  television.  Often   historical because they included real time (not lip synced) music performances. - early dance shows included American Bandstand and the Arthur Murray Party. American Bandstand ran  till  the  1980’s.  During  1970’s  disco  oriented  shows  such  as  Soul  Train  and  Dance  Fever  continued   this tradition,  1980’s  audiences  enjoyed  programs  like  Solid  Gold  and  Dance  Party  USA.  MTV  in  1980’s   and later TRL. Learning Activity 1.1 1. Look up and memorize the following terms in the Glossary in your textbook. Listen to Rocket ‘88’ until you have been able to hear what is meant by each term. You will need to listen to the whole song and read and follow along with the listening guide several times. Simple Verse Form - The verse and chorus sections employ the same underlying musical material, though the lyrics and sung melodies of each section are different. The form consists of these verses and choruses presented in alternation though more than one verse may occur before the chorus Instrumental Verse - A verse section that repeats the music of the verse, without the singing and with an instrument soloing, is an instrumental verse. Guitar, saxophone, and keyboard solos are common, though any instrument can solo in a instrumental verse Bar/Measure - The bar of music is the number of beats per bar. These bars usually have the same number of beats in them throughout a song. Word bar is synonymous with measure. Rhythm - In the broadest sense, the owrd rhythm refers to the organised patterning of the temporal dimensions in the music. More specifically we can refer to a rhythmic figure in the music, which is usually a short segment with a clearly defined profile of some kind. Meter and meter classification are aspects of the broader aspect of rhythmic organization. And are discussed at greater length in the Introduction. Meter Classification - A meter classification classifies how we feel the organization of the rhythm for a particular song or passage. In this book, meters are classified as either simple or compound, and then as either duple, triple, or quadruple. A meter classification can be notated using specific meter, and though there are several meters than can be used with each classification, there are six meters that are most common. Meter - The establishment of how we will notate music within a certain meter classification. Each of the meter classifications discussed in the Introduction can be represented with several meters, but some meters are far more common than others, especially in rock music. Of the simple meters, 2/4 , ¾, and 4/4 are most common, and among the compound meters, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8 are most common. Duple Meter (Simple) - When there are two beats in a bar of music, the meter is classified as a duple. Duple meter is commonly notated as 2/4 if it is a simple feel or 6/8 if it is a compound feel. Shuffle Rhythm - Often a way of playing 4/4 that transforms it into something closer to 12/8. The four beats in a measure of 4/4 are each divided into two equal parts, making for a scheme that goes 1 & 2 &3 & 4 &. In 12/8, the same measure would divide the beats into three equal parts, resulting in goes 1 & ah 2 & ah 3 & ah 4 & ah. A shuffle uses the second of thse schemes, but the & is ofeten silent, so we get it like this. This sound somewhat like the first scheme 4/4, since it has two elements per beat, but unlike the first scheme, the elements do not evenly divide the beat. 2. The instrumentation of this song includes bass, drums, piano, and saxophones. Work to distinguish each sound in the mix. 3. This song is in a quadruple meter; each bar is divided into four beats. You can count the beats ONE-two-Three-four in time with the bass on the recording. Beat one is the strongest, beat three is the second strongest and beats two and four are weak. 4. The meter is simple because each beat is divided into two parts; you can hear this most clearly by counting along with the saxophones from 00:50. 5. The song is played with a shuffle rhythm; the beats are divided into two, but the two parts are unequal: ONE-(and)-uh-two-(and)-uh-Three-(and)-uh-four-(and)-uh.  The  word  “and”  in   brackets  is  silent.  This  type  of  rhythm  is  also  called  “swing  rhythm.”  Again,  you  can  count  this   along  with  the  saxophones  from  00:50.  If  the  rhythm  were  “straight,”  the  sub-division of the beat would be into two equal parts and would be countedONE-and-two-and-Three-and-four- and. Learning Activity 1.2 Now  let’s  listen  to  a  couple  of  more  complex  meters. 1. Look up and memorize the following terms in the Glossary at the back of your textbook. a. Triple Meter (Simple) - When there are three beats in a bar (or measure) of music, the meter is classified as triple. Triple meter is commonly notated as ¾ if it is a simple feel, or 9/8 if it is a compound feel. b. Compound Meter - When we subdivide the basic beat into three equal parts, this creates a compound feel, which is notated using compound meters such as 6/8, 9/8, or most commonly, 12/8. 2. For triple meter, listen to Tennessee Waltz by Patti Page. a. Count along like this: ONE-two-three, ONE-two-three. Beat one is strong, beats two and three are weak. You can hear the pattern most clearly in the opening bars, before the vocals begin. The bass is heard on beat one and a strummed guitar is heard on  beats  two  and  three.  The  result  is  a  “BOOM-chuk-chuk”  sound  common  to  all   waltzes. The effect is lilting and dance-like. 3. For a compound meter, listen to What a Wonderful World by Louis Armstrong. a. In compound meters, the bar or measure is divided up into two, three or four beats, just like simple meters, however, each beat is then sub-divided into three equal parts (in simple meters, the sub-division is always into two parts). You can hear the division of the beat most clearly in the plucked guitar in the opening bars. Count the sub- division of the beat in a fast ONE-and-uh-two-and-uh along with the guitar. This time, the  “and”  is  NOT  silent. b. The primary beat can be heard most clearly between the bass and a rim-shot on the drum (the drummer hits the rim rather than the skin of the drum, it sounds a bit like “clack”).  The  primary  beat  in  this  case  is  duple.  Count  along  with  the  bass  and  drum  in   a slow ONE-two. c. The effect of compound meters, because of the triple sub-division of the main beat, is also rather lilting and dance-like. Learning Activity 1.3 “Timbre”  (pronounced  TAM-burr)  is  a  musical  term  that  refers  to  the  quality  or  “colour”  of  a  sound.   For instance: consider the difference in the sound of a flute versus a trumpet. You can distinguish one from the other easily because their tone qualities or timbres are different. We generally use rather poetic and subjective adjectives to describe timbre: the timbre of a flute is bright, brittle, or thin, while  a  trumpet’s  timbre  is  bold,  brassy,  or  round. In popular music, timbre is most often considered in terms of the vocals or the guitar sounds. The timbres generally change according to genre and can help you identify one from the other. The timbres used in different genres also carry meaning within the genre, which we will discuss in more depth in later units. For now, just practice listening for timbre. Try coming up with other adjectives that describe each timbre to you. 1. For a thin, nasal vocal timbre, listen to Cross Road Blues by Robert Johnson. 2. For a smooth, crooning vocal timbre, listen to White Christmas by Bing Crosby. 3. For a harsh, heavy, clashing guitar timbre, listen to God Save the Queen by the Sex Pistols 4. For a light, thin, guitar timbre, listen to Love Me Tender by Elvis Presley Learning Activity 1.4 1. Look up and memorize the following terms in the Glossary in your textbook: o The 12-Bar Blues - The twelve-bar blues is structure that forms the musical basis for many verses, choruses and even bridges in rock music. It can be divided into three 4-bar phrases. The lyrics to the first phrase are frequently repeated in the second phrase, with new lyrics appearing in the third phrase, creating a kind of question/ question repeated/ answer model as the words unfold. The twlve- bars blues also emplys a specific arrangement of chords, and this is explained in greater detail in Interlude One. In the history of rock, the twlve-bar blues is strongly  associated  with  1950’s  rock  and  rhythm  &  blues.  Even  when  this   structure  arises  in  later  rock,  the  reference  to  the  1950’s  is  often  clear.     o Phrase - A phrase is a short passage of music; often in rock music, phrases are four measures in length (sometimes in eight measures). A phrase is akin to a sentence in spoken language and divides the music into units that make it easier to comprehend. Vocal phrases often correspond to obvious points of division and articulation in the lyrics being sung UNIT 2 pg 34-50, 51-73 The Nineteen Twenties, Thirties, and Forties: - The  decades  of  the  1920s,  30’s,  and  40’s  in  America  were  to  a  great  extent  shaped  by  three   crucial events: the end of World War I, the stock market crash of 1929, and World War II. - When the war ended, Americans felt simultaneous relief and fear, therefore upheaval in world politics was reflected in the arts, with the emergence of riotous new forms of literatures, dance, and music. - In this period, songs remained the dominant form of pop music in the 1920s, but the radical sound of Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington and others helped define the decade musically. F Scott Fitzgerald  dubbed  the  1920s  the  jazz  age,  and  jazz’s  strong  rhythms,  jagged  melodies,  and  big   sound made  people  get  up  on  dance,  with  female  “flappers”  dancing  right  alongside  their  male   counterparts. - Then followed by Black Tuesday, million lost their jobs. - Franklin Roosevelt was elected, which give jobs to people. - At the same time holocaust occurred in Germany. - Upon the surrender of the Japanese and Germany, American soldiers returned home as conquering heroes. - A bill signed by GI. Bill, allowed more Americans to attend college, creating a baby boom that has a consequences in American Cultures. Since the children will have money and spend it on Music. The World before Rock and Roll - In 1956, Elvis Presley appeared in a show which was the source of considerable controversy. On one of the show, Milton Berle Show, Elvis had launched into an improvised ending to the tune, grinding his hips suggestively as he sang. In spite of the protests form the parents. Elvis became the central figure in the new kind of popular music intended for teens: rock and roll. - Rock and roll developed out of three principal sources that preceded it: Mainstream pop music, rhythm and blues, and country and western. - It also tells that new technologies such as radio and television play an important role in critical shift Building a national audience for music and entertainment - Sheet music publishers and professional songwriters - Newly development of technology such as television and radio made huge impact on distributing performances. - In the first half of twentieth country, the primary method of distribution was by selling sheet music. - Tin Pan Alley, is the place where songwriters and producers clustered to form the geographic heart of this industry. - Many songs followed the sectional verse-chorus format, in which the chorus is the part of the song listeners are likely to recognize awhile the verse is an introduction that sets the scene of the song. - Usually in a style of AABA form that is 32 measures. - The sectional verse-chorus is rare in rock and roll, but it plays a central role in rock. - In Tin Pan Alley era, the basic unit of trade was the song itself, not a specific recording of the song. A successful song was recorded by a series of artists, each trying to tailor the tune of his or her personal style. - Professional songwriters composed songs, and publishers worked to get each tune heard by the public. At the same time, the songwriters themselves were rarely performers, so publishers had to  “pitch”  songs  to  artists  who  might  consider  performing  them. - With the rise of musical theatre in 1930s, broadways musicals became a prime vehicle for bring songs to the public. - When sound films became popular in 1930s, musicals were often released in film versions and new musicals were composed expressly for the movies. - Radio was the best way to promote a song during the 1930s and 40s, and was dominated by big bands form 1935-45 and by star singers from 1947-55. National vs. Regional - By the end of nineteenth century, majority of Americans lived in a world very much conditioned by their local and regional surroundings. - Musical time is usually identified by the particular regions of the country. - Usually play or hear performed in person, at a vaudeville show. - Later, technological and marketing developments in radio and motion picture made the same kinds of popular entertainment available throughout the country, in many ways breaking down regional differences. - The first technology innovation was radio, this allows some pope styles to become national while others kept their regional identities. - Mainstream pop targeted white, middle-class listening audience that is played on network radio. However, low income listeners were most excluded since country and western and rhythm and blues is what they listen, as a consequence they retained their regional distinctions. The rise of the radio networks in the 1920s - The radio broadcasters tried to get radio into every home in America by building high power transmitters. - The government also licensed a few stations for exclusive use of a particular frequency, which could regularly reach entire multistate regions. - The second way to reach a large audience was to link a number of local and regional stations together to form a network. - The network has a few advantages: programming could be run from a central location, and it was possible to run live broadcast from member stations. - Live radio was also an important vehicle for music publishers, who had to convince bandleaders and singers not only to perform a song, but also using the song in their live show would serve their career interests. - Through the medium of radio a song could become popular almost overnight, with radio a song could be heard far and wide in a single performance. - Radio in the 1930s and 40s performed their music live on the radio since before 1945 it was considered unethical to play records on the air. - It was a benefit to live musicians who took advantage to work opportunities afforded by radio to fill the gaps between network programs and other contexts. - Some stations employed a studio band for local programming. Regional Styles of Country and Western Music - “Country”  Music  in  the  Southeast  in  the  1930s.  Country  and  western  music  remained  mostly   regional until after 1945. - There  are  many  styles  of  music  that  come  together  as  “country  and  western”  kept  distinctive   regional accents until the late 1940s, when Nashville became a hub for this type of music. - The  regional  styles  can  be  divided  into  “country”  music  from  the  southeast  and  Appalachia,  and   “western”  music  from  the  West  and  southwest. - Ralph Peer, a producer who roamed in South in search of what record companies  called  “hillbilly   music”  which  he  recorded  many  of  the  earliest  country  performers. - He travelled towns, setting up gears as he went, and local musicians lined up to record on his equipment. “Western”  Music  in  the  Southwest  and  California  in  the  1930s - Western music reflected the wide open prairie of the cowboys. - Gene Autry was the first singing cowboy to be appear in the Wild West films. - Patsy  Montana  made  her  mark  as  the  singing  cowgirl  with  “I  want  to  be  a  cowboy’s  sweet  heart”   and featured a yodeling style influenced by Jimmie Rodgers. - Historians may dispute how authentically western some of this music was, but for the national movie-going  public,  these  artists  defined  “cowboy  music” - Western swing also helped to define western music as a style that put a cowboy twist on the big band idea. - In addition to rhythm section and horns, as one might expect of a radio dance band, western swing featured fiddles, a steel guitar and mariachi style trumpet from Mexico, an example is Will’s  “New  San  Antonio  Rose”  . Jimmie Rodgers: The first star of country music - The historical and cultural context in which country and western music reached a mainstream pop audience are essential element to understanding the overall development of these styles. - Rodgers’s  music  and performance made him a national star, he was primarily a solo performer, who  sang  and  played  the  acoustic  guitar  such  as  “Blue  Yodel”. - He was later imitated by western singers such as Gene Autry, Ernest Tubb and Eddy Arnold. Rural and Urban Blues Migration Patterns from the Rural south to the Urban North - In the beginning, pop music played by black musicians and intended for black listening audiences  was  called  race  music  until  Jerry  Wexler  coined  the  term  “rhythm  and  blues”. - During first half of the twentieth century black pop music was outside of the mainstream pop. - This is a reflection of racial segregation in American culture; most white, middle class Americans were simply unaware of most aspects of black culture. - However, migration of the African Americans helped to integrate regional African-American pop styles into the American cultural mainstream. - After WWI, blues enjoyed several years of popularity with mainstream white pop listeners, in particular  the  sheet  music  of  W.C.  Handy  whose  “Memphis  Blues”  and  “St.  Louis  Blues”  sold  well   internationally. - The history of selling blues record can be traced to the 1923 million-selling  song  “Down  Hearted   Blues”  sung  by  Bessie  Smith.  However,  her  career  began  to  fade  as  blues  fell  of  the  commercial   radar. - Many blues recording exist because record companies scoured the South trying to find new rural  blues  artists  who  might  repeat  Bessie  Smith’s  success.  One  example  is  Robert  Johnson,   whose 1936-37 recordings become enormously influential on rock guitarists in the 60s. - Johnson is also a performer who sang to the accompaniment of his own acoustic guitar playing. - This allows the artist to add extra beats or measures as the spirit moved them. (ex. Cross Roads Blues 1936) - As African Americans migrated to urban areas, blue musicians moved into city bars and clubs forming combos using electric guitars, bass, piano, drums and harmonica. - While much of the development of the development of rhythm and blues during 1940s remained regional and outside of the pop stream, Louis Jordan and his Tympany Five became popular with mainstream listeners through a series of singles such as G.I Jive, Caldonia Boogie, and  Choo  Choo  Ch’boogie. - He adopted fast tempos but pared down the instrumentation to only a rhythm section and saxophone, a move that worked both musically and financially. - He used humorous lyrics often touched on pressing social issues such as racism and poverty. Regional Radio and the Black Experience in 1950s America - In the 1950s, a new approach to radio disseminated rhythm and blues outside of regional black communities. - Advertisement is important as it support the radio station work financially. - As black populations began to grow in urban areas, different programs and stations provided black stations- or programs directed to a black audience on otherwise white stations- began to pop up around the country. Independent Labels Target Regional Audiences - As radio stations devoted to rhythm and blues arose across the country, so did record labels specializing in black popular music. - Most of the new record companies were independents- that is, they were not part of a larger corporate conglomerate like the major labels that dominated the music industry at the time. - Major labels had enormous financial sources, manufacturing plants and sophisticated distribution that allowed them to get their newest records out quickly. - The smallest independent labels were staffed by only a few people, which required driving from store to store and distributing records out of the trunk of a car, this meant that they can only focus locally. - Since blue market is not as profitable as mainstream pop, as the major devote its resource to pop, which leaves resources for small independent labels to survive. The singer steps forward The singers and the big bands - As country and western and rhythm and blues are growing, large scale changes occurred to mainstream pop, especially after WWII. - During period 1935-1945, often considered the big band era, pop music was created by dance bands that employed a rhythm section of bass, drums, piano, and guitar combined with a horn section of trumpets trombones and saxophones. - They created arrangement of Tin Pan Alley songs music that is appropriate for dancing. - The celebrity in the band was its leader as the musicians and singers often changed frequently. - Arrangement during the big band era emphasized the band, often allotting only one time through the chorus of a song for the singer. And some does not have vocals at all. - In big band music, the vocalist provide the variety. Because of the emphasis on instrumental playing in the big bands, there was a close relationship between big band music and jazz. - In this era, a number of performing artists developed careers independent from any particular band. Such as Bing Crosby, whose relaxed, crooning made him a favorite in both U.S and abroad. - He also acted in films and hosted his how variety show. - He projected a wholesome friendly and paternal image. The Singer Steps Forward - The singers and the Big Bands o 1935-1945: considered the Big Band Era o Employed a rhythm section of bass, drums, piano, an guitar combined with a horn section of trumpets, trombones, and saxophones o Emphasized the band o Many important jazz musicians played in big bands o Despite the general focus on bands during the big band era, a number of performing artists developed careers independent from any particular o Most important pop singer in the 1930s and 1940s was Bing Crosby - Frank Sinatra o Was a singer with the Harry James and Tommy Dorsey bands (Sang an occasional solo but mostly sang on the sidelines) o Became a teen idol almost instantly o Very dedicated to his craft and frequently acknowledged that much of his vocal phrasing and technique was based on his study of the musicians he worked with during the big band era o Sinatra encouraged more singers to take centre stage o Financial pressure forced many big bands to break up - The Sound of Pop in the Early 1950s o Pop music in the first half of the 1950s is sometimes dismissed as being hopelessly corny and stiff, especially in comparison to the rhythm and blues of that era o Before rock and roll, mainstream pop music was produced for a family audience and teenagers were expected to enjoy the same music as their parents and grandparents  Pop music mostly avoided topics that might be considered unsuitable for general audiences  Example:  “I’m  sittin’  on  top  of  the  world” o Early Rock and Roll was directed primarily at young people o Aspects of this music that might seem corny and naïve in retrospect resulted from trying to create music for a well-rounded audience o It is possible to detect elements of the rowdier, youth-oriented rock and roll that would emerge mid-decade Recordings and Radio Further a National Sound for Country and Western Music - Superstition Radio Broadcasts in Prime Time o In  1922,  Atlanta’s  WSB  went  on  the  air  featuring  local  country  music o WBAP in Forth Worth began a barn-dance program o Within a few years, local and regional radio stations across the nation were programing country music, especially WSM in Nashville and WLS in Chicago. o WSM broadcast the popular country-oriented program the Grand Ole Opry, while WLS produced the National Barndance - Country Music during WWII o Many listeners go their first sustained exposure to country and western music from their fellow soldiers o When the troops returned home, many retained their newfound affection for country and sought it out in their hometowns o Some soldiers voted Roy Acuff as being a more popular singer than Frank Sinatra - Nashville Becomes Country and Western Headquarters o Nashville became the centre of most country western music, recording, and publishing after WWII o Had been home to the Grand Ole Opry since 1925, and by the late 1940s the Opry have become the most highly regarded radio show in country music The Broad Range of Rhythm and Blues - The Influence of Gospel Music (Rural Southern Church Tradition) o One trait shared by most rhythm and blues styles during this era was a debt to gospel music. o The vocal emphases and embellishments that rhythm and blues singers frequently employed, as well as the call and response between the soloist and the chorus, were drawn from typical gospel practices - Chess Records and Chicago Electric Blues o Ike Turner (scout for Sun Records) claimed he searched churches and bars for talent o While gospel was clearly grounded in the sacred, blues was strongly secular - Atlantic and Black Pop o Atlantic Records in New York was an independent company that reached a broad audience with recordings made by African-American performers in the 1950s o Taken together, the music of Chess and Atlantic exhibits the wide stylistic range of 1950s rhythm and blues o Although these were among the most prominent independent companies of the period, there were many other regional labels that produced R&B records during this era - Doo-Wop o Immediately following WWII, doo-wop groups began to emerge from urban neighborhoods o The singers in these groups often could not afford instruments so they used their voice as  their  instrument  (sang  “a  cappella”) o The songs were sometimes derived in the AABA form derived from Tin Pan Alley and cast in a rolling compound rhythm pounded out as chords on the piano o Example: Sh-Boom The Big Business of Country and Western - Bill Monroe and His Blue Grass Boys o During the 1940s, as country music began to thrive and Nashville became the hub of the country industry, new styles emerged. o Most prominent of these was bluegrass o Sounds old-fashioned but actually developed in the late 1930s as a form of commercial music - Hank Williams: A Short Career the Cast a Long Shadow o In the early 1950s, Hank Williams became an iconic figure in country and western music o No one matched the popular appeal of this singer-songer from rural Alabama o Williams’s  singing  style  shows  the  influence  of  both  Roy  Acuff  and  Ernest  Tubb  and  his   many vocal inflections create an impression of sincere emotional expression o Williams’s  lyrics  are  direct  and  simple  and  his  performances seem to come right from the heart Rhythm  and  Blues  as  a  “Dangerous  Influence”  On  American  (White)  Youth - Stagger Lee and the Black Male Swagger o Perception of racial differences influenced the way in which mainstream America received rhythm and blues o The Stagger Lee myth: the idea that some black men are especially defiant, and often driven sexually o This type of swaggering black man was frightening to law enforcement due to his lack of compassion and was though to be constantly on the lookout for virginal white women o Convinced many white parents that rhythm and blues was a dangerous influence on their teenagers, and many worked to have this music, and the rock and roll that later developed out of it, abolished - Hokum and Fun with Double Meanings o Within black culture at midcentury, there was a well-established musical tradition of songs  called  “hokum  blues”  that  poked  fun  at  various  aspects  of  adult  relationships,   mostly centered on sexual relations and the many situations that can arise in this in this context - First half of the 1950s: rhythm and blues, like country and western was in many ways very different from mainstream pop - Until 1955, the music business remained highly segregated into pop, rhythm and blues, and country and western markets, with most of the media exposure and industry dollars dedicated to Pop. UNIT 3 pg 74-95, 96-111 - With  the  creation  of  the  suburbs  in  the  1950’s  a  rise  in  the  ownership  of   automobiles sky rocketed as people lived further from the city centers - With the rise of the automobile came the rise of the AM radio that they usually came equipped with. This helped to fuel the rise of rock and roll which was developed in the fifties and gave teenagers a chance to listen to it away from their parents control - During a time where sexuality was kept in severe check, playboy magazine was released which caused a great stir because it is was out of norm for that time - It is believed that in the year of 1955 rock and roll began to develop into the musical category it is in today. Believed to have grown from the rhythm and blues genre, the believed primary rise to rock and roll was the rise of youth culture and emergence of independent radio along with record labels. - The beginning of rock and roll was difficult it was viewed as something just for white teenagers, a genre separate from their parents and grandparents, unfortunately it was viewed by the older generations as bad influences on young minds so it was difficult for labels to be successful - The fifties saw the rise of the disc jockey (DJ) as white teens become fascinated with rhythm and blues which was believed to be a black genre labels wanted to get this music on the air. So a man named Leo Mintz from OHIO sponsored a late night radio show hosted by Alan Freed for teenagers to listen to. - In order to get your music heard it was crucial to have it played on jukeboxes in restaurants and bars as this was the main area people were introduced to records - PAYOLA- is the term used for paying disc jockeys to play your music on the radio - Most important  magazines  in  music  history  are  “cashbox”  and  “billboard”   with the charts that these magazines included it would help labels, store owners and business determine what music was popular today - One of the most successful early rockers to crossover from rhythm and blues was  “Antoine  “Fats”  Domino”,  who  had  giant  success  in  the  pop  charts   while his close associates would say he was more of a country and western singer - Chuck  Berry  was  another  large  artist  in  the  late  1950’s  who  had  success   crossing over from rhythm and blues to pop and reaching the top 50 on both charts  with  his  first  hit  “Maybellene” - Berry  was  known  for  making  “story  songs”  like  his  song  “school  day”  which   was chronicling the daily events of an average teenager - Most  of  Berry’s  songs  were in simple verse chorus form, often employing a chorus structure influenced by the 12 bar blues - Little  Richard  was  the  next  big  artist  in  the  1950’s  to  crossover  between   rhythm  and  blues  to  pop.  He  was  said  to  create  to  the  “wild  man”  persona   around rock and roll for his on stage antics and flamboyant style. This unfortunately made it difficult for him to generate fans in the older age groups as his music was too sexual to some people, Berry and Fats both had strong country western backgrounds so older white people still listened to them but Richards music was too much for them. - WHITENING OF RYTHEM AND BLUES- many early rock and roll songs referred to sexuality in their lyrics this was not a very big selling point in the 1950’s  so  many  remakes  would  be  done changing the sexual parts to dancing. William John Clinton Haley Jr. was a disk jockey and also part of a country  swing  band  in  Philadelphia,  his  version  of  rhythm  and  blues  didn’t   include the sexual lyrics but was still quite popular across all demographics - With all of the success that these early artists were having it become habit to watch a song rise of the rhythm and blues chart and cover it with a more pop version. Unfortunately this did not allow the crossover of the original song or the original artist  who  was  quite  often  black  and  they  felt  “ripped  off”.   When artists would sign contracts with labels they often signed away any future royalties or rights to music so they could be paid up front for shows. This then gave the record companies all of the power to use the songs and allow  for  white  artists  to  take  the  songs  and  then  use  that  version  for  cd’s,   jukeboxes and radio. - The main concern this raised was artist covering songs only a week or two after they were released, and justifying it by saying rhythm and blues versions would not play on white radio so they had to remake it to get out to the white culture on pop radio - Pg 96-111 not received Unit 4 pg 112-126, 127-153 The Demise Of Rock And Roll And The Promise Of Soul Chapter Study Outline Splitting up the Market: Brill Building and ALDON Publishing - 1960s  return  of  pre  rock  and  roll - Brill Building - Both place and stylistic label o The  brills  building  is  an  actual  place  (located  mid  Manhattan)  however  “brill  building”  is   also  a  style  of  music  of  early  1960s,  But  it  is  also  a  stylistic  label  and  refers  to  set  of   business  practices - Brill Building approach: o Song  chosen  for  appropriate  group-  in  this  process  the  actual  recording  artist  is  not  the   center  of  the  process o No  unpredictable  or  rebellious  singers,  this  returned  power  to  publishers,  a  return  to  the   way  business  was  done  pre  rock - Aldon  Music  –  Practices  in  Brill  Building;  by  Nevins  and  krichner-  aldon  offices  contained  musical   instruments  songwriters  etc - Best  known  professional  at  aldon:    Barry  Mann,  Cynthia  Weill,  Gerry  goffin,  Carole  king,  Neil   sedaka,  Howard  Greenfield Teen idols page 115 - 116 - The rise of Pat Boone & Elvis during the first wave established 2 distinct types of teen idols: o The good boy – clean cut  Elvis- respectable boy from the army  Good boys were cast as ideal boyfriends: well groomed, attractive, sensitive and not interested in anything more than hand holding and an occasional kiss o The Bad boy- tough, sex -obsessed hoodlum whose parents tried hard to keep their girls away from - Teen idols recorded for both independent and major labels with almost equal success between 1957 and 63 - Philadelphia  produced  an  especially  high  #  of  hits  including… o Frankie Avalon – “  DedeDinah”  and  “Venus” o Bobby Rydell – “wild  one” o Freddy Canon  “  Palisades  Park o Paula Anka, Bobby Darwin & Neil Sedaka- wrote many of their own songs - Although mostly white, found popularity amongst black audiences, with Bobby Rydell,Freddy Cannon,Neil Sedaka: all scoring top 20 R&B hits during this period - Let loose by Bob Marcui Philadelphia based chancellor label is a good example of musical problems that the teen idol adaptation of rock and roll could produce for the first wave rock fans- song written by brill building producers - The emergence of teen idols in late  1950s  inaugurated  the  “bubble  gum”  music - Paula Anka, Neil Sedaka and Bobby Darin all got their starts as teen Idols, each translator their careers into songwriters and performing for a broader audience - 1960 teen idols marketed on radio and special television shows devoted to teen pop, the most important of which was American Bandstand The dance CRAZE, AMERICAN BANDSTAND, AND THE TWIST (116 – 118) - 1960s teens in habit of running home after school to watch American Bandstand o Reinforced idea of national youth culture o Familiar  radio  show  adapted  to  television o Best  known  host-  dick  Clark o Performances  were  lip  synched o Spurred  interest  in  dancing o Reinforced  youth  culture o Dick  Clark  introduced  “the  twist”  in  1960 o Bandstand  responsible  for  teen  dance  craze  and  representing  American  youth - While  American  bandstand  was  responsible  for  igniting  1960s  dance  craze,  its  greater  role  came   to  play  in  Americas  youth-  having  a  network  dedicated  to  youth  reinforced  idea  of  national   youth  culture-  unifying  teens  by  a  common  bond - Movies  played  by  well  known  music  sins  also  played  a  role  in  this  sense  of  community  and   shared  concern - Elvis-  huge  teen  idol  of  this  time,  was  making  family-oriented  films  and  Frankie  Alvan  jumped   into  movies - Paved  way  for  Beatles  to  come  in - Bandstand  also  helped  make  rock  more  acceptable  for  adults-  the  twist  lead  to  adults  admitting   they  liked  rock  and  roll  for  the  first  time The Rise & Fall of American Bandstand - Page 120-121- by john Jackson - During first 3 years of American bandstand, Clarke clobbed together a pop music dynasty of his own - By 1959 he owned scores music - 1960  chubby  checker  recording  of  the  “twist”- dance fads arrived more rapidly than ever o 1964  while bandstand increased so did ABCs stature, leading them to reduce bandstand airtime  after President Kennedys assassination- two events effected the future of Bandtsand: Clark relocated his show to Los Angelas while the following Sunday CBS launched Toast of Town where the Beatles were introduced – marked begiinging of diminution of American Bandstand Folk music and Putting Away Childish Things (118 – 126) - College-age listeners - Seemed more "real" than commercial pop - Long history of addressing problems in society such as poverty, while singing and advocating for social change from a left wing political position- this lead to problems for ex, weavers blacklisted for being accused of siding with communist party - Folk had Popular appealthrough 1940s  Pete Seeger  Woody Guthrie - During the first half of 1950s, the Weavers (with Seeger) had a series of pop hits “On   Top  of  Old  Smoky”,  “So  Long”,  “Goodnight  Irene” - Folk had a long history of addressing problems by the less fortunate - Advocacy for social change– left wing - During Red Scare (1950), folk artists ran into problems as the u.s government attempted to identify communists within its borders - For instance, the Weavers Career was cut short when they were blacklisted for reported having sympathy for the communists - By mid 1950s folk singers were forced onto pop mainstream and only later returned by 1960 back into pop mainstream- by this time artists were once again political, aligning themselves with civil rights and later opposition of Vietnam War - Key component of folk that attracted many listeners was it marked populist culture; greater sense of community, with performance made by regular people - Although the description of folk music during folk song movement (1958-65), much of the Untutored quality of folksingers was studied and self conscious - A big part of Folk cultures, to college people, appeal was the Break with the norms of middle-class life - The Rise in folk lead to brief fascination with Calypso music - “Jamaican  Farwell”  and  “Banana  Boat”  by  Harry  Belafonte  are  the  best  examples  of  this   easy going, soft pop style featuring Caribbean folk inflections that seemed exotic at the time - Dave Guard, Bob Shane, Nick Reynolds began performing folk to college audiences and adopted  a  named  inspired  by  Belafonte’s  Jamaican  hits - The  Kingston  Trio  version  “  Tom  Dula”  climbed  charts  until  reaching  number  one in 1959- initiating folk revival in mainstream pop Kingston Trio – #1 in pop in 1959, in many ways defined folk music for most general listeners - Importance of album sales - In the years that followed the first hit records of Kingston Trio, Two sides of the folk revival were developed: o Those who explored rich literature of documented folk music  Bob Dylan  Joan Baez o Commercial, pop-based acts  Kingston Trio – began to climb charts in 1958, group had 10 singles between 1958-68  Highwaymen, the Rooftop Singers, & New Christy Minstrels were oriented much toward pop culture  Formed  in  New  York’s  Greenwich  village  in  1961,  Peter, Paul, and Mary eclipsed eventually Kingston trio – most successful folk group of 1960s – group had strong commitment to civil rights protest movement  Their lasting popularity was a result of the groups ability to represent both strands of folk revival, Constructing an image of maintaining and believable sense of authenticity and sincerity and approachable performance style- this was largely constructed by music industry - A  comparison  of  Peter,  Paul,  &  Mary’s  version  of  “blowing  in  the  wind”’  with  Dylan   illustrates the important difference between folk music of this period - Dylan makes no concession to pop sensibilities, while the Peter, Paul, Mary version is professionally sung, played and arranged (by Milton Kun) – increasing its likelihood of appealing to a pop audience - At  the  time  Dylan’s  performance  would  seem  rough  and  amateur,  until  later  on  in  the   decade - 1960s folk music – sincerity and authencity- constructed by pop industry - Such constructions of authenticity bear out the notion that no matter what sort of image a performer projects, he or she is still apart of the entertainment business - Even if the performer was actually sincere, it would never be enough to simply show up and be oneself, these qualities of sincerity is projected onto the stage and those know how to do so Similarities to Brill Building pop - Similarities between folk music and brill pop are striking; these styles were 2 faces of the same business in early 1960s - Each carefully crafted to appeal to distinct age group within youth culture - The images of these 2 styles contrasted strongly- pop was superficial and cute, while folk was serious minded and intellectually engaging But their business mechanisms that marketed the music often the same - Both polite in comparison to first wave of rock and roll and much of this is family orientation can be attributed to the control being exercised within the music business during this period Page  122:  Kingston  trio  “Tom  Dooley” - Form o Simple verse chorus, beginning with the chorus o Entire song repeats same 8 bar music for verses & choruses o Verses presented in same way each time with lead vocal supported by two part back ups o The chorus is presented first in unison then in 3 part harmony, then in a more complicated arrangement for 3 voices that introduces the new melody over the chorus melody o the last 2 bars of the chorus are repeated 3 times, a technique often used to close out  a  tune  called  “tag” - Time signature o 12/8, a gently rolling four beat feel Instrumentation: acoustic guitar, banjo, acoustic bass, lead vocal, and 2 backup vocals Ambitious Pop: The Producer - Major companies usually hired A&R Men (Artists and Repertoire), who organized and coordinated the various professionals involved with making tracks o Early version of the producer - The producer was vital in shaping the sound of a record - Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller and Phil Spector are among the most important emerging producers  of  the  60’s  pop  scene - Leiber and Stoller – Vital  team  of  songwriters  in  the  first  wave  of  rock  in  the  50’s - Vital  team  of  songwriters  in  the  first  wave  of  rock  in  the  50’s o Created  “Hound  Dog”  among  others,  later  worked  on writing many more songs for Elvis o Formed Spark Records in LA in 1953 o Artists often had to work around the sort of sound the duo wanted to communicate o Offered position producing at Atlantic  Strongly rooted in R&B and complex arrangements  Retained the right to work with other labels and musicians, largely remaining independent  Worked closely with the Robins making a number of hits but later had troubles moving them to Atlantic. The group renamed to the Coasters and had many hits o Playlets – Songs revolving around mini-narratives infused with drama and humor  Wide range of influences, but were particularly rooted in black culture and struggles of the time - Phil Spector – Important  to  the  revolutionizing  of  the  pop  sound,  the  “wall  of  sound”  and   in particular his work with girl pop groups o Worked  under  Leiber  and  Stoller  in  the  50’s  as  a  teen o Demanded total control over production and direction of the record, seeking to infuse each recording with his signature sound  He often crammed a massive amount of instruments into small places  Gold Star Studios in LA  Sounds from one instrument would be picked up by several microphones, often linked to other instruments.  All of these were combined to make one monophonic backing track  Also used doubling of different versions of an instrument playing the same note or passage to get a unique sound for each part  HEAVY use of reverb to meld all the sounds together o All this served to make one overarching sound that was difficult to separate or break down o Frequently used the same group of professional studio musicians known as the “Wrecking  Crew”  to  accompany  the  vocal  elements  of  a  track  Used a recording machine that could take 3 distinct tracks  1) Guitar, bass, piano, and percussion usually on track 1  2) All vocals on a second track  3) Extra string accompaniment on the last track  These 3 tracks would then be mixed to make one mono track that would make the record  Developed a reputation as a perfectionist, often rerecording sections until it matched his specific vision o Ex.  “Be  My  Baby”  by  the  Ronnettes,  became  what  Spector  referred  to  as  “teenage   symphonies”  as  they  were  heartfelt  pop  ballads  with  lush  instrumentation  and  an   expansive sound  Mono recordings made it very difficult to cover, gave a unique sonic signature o Girl Group pop as opposites  Blatantly  commercial,  with  formulaic  structure  giving  off  a  “wholesome”   feel  Still they provided a huge basis for artistic experimentation from producers like Spector, which had not really been afforded to rock and roll in its previous incarnation  Later would become much more incremental to Rock recording, especially to the psychedelic sound The Rise of Soul Leiber  and  Stoller  produced  many  hits  in  the  genre  of  “sweet  soul”,  more  aligned  with  the  soft   pop elements of R&B o Nat King Cole was one of the leading  soul  artists  of  the  60’s,  alongside  Johnny   Mathis - Sam Cooke – Had  29  singles  place  in  the  Top  40’s  between  1957  and  1965. o Came from the pop side of the gospel sound o In the similar vein as Ray Charles who had a number 2 R&B hit in 55 o Based around much sweet vocal crooning marked by melodic flourishes - The Drifters – Had a number of hits under Atlantic but the group wasn`t together strongly and the label was reluctant to let them go o Started working with Leiber and Stoller to redefine the sound - Ben E King – Influenced by Sam Cooke, worked closely with Leiber and Stoller o Lead vocals backed by the Drifters o Fired from the band in 1960, complained that the members weren`t being paid enough o Music greatly influenced by a number of cultural backgrounds, particularly Latin Rockabilly Popsters - Influenced by the Southern sound and the recording sound of the Brill Building movement o More geared towards teens and parent-pleasing - The Everly Brothers – Easygoing country infused sound o Scored hit with ``Bye Bye Love``, placing on all 3 charts o Signed to Columbia in 1955 but dropped later o Later signed to Cadence with the help of their manager Wesley Rose, where they scored 15 additional Top 40 hits  Scored 7 more around 1964 at Warner Brothers o Their early career relied on songs from Boudleaux and Felice Bryant  They later wrote more of their own hits o Relied heavily on harmony and lush melodies over sweet-country guitar  Steel String acoustic guitars  Higher end vocal range without much vibrato, straight forward tone - Roy Orbison – From Wink Texas o Finally released his first single ``Ooby Dooby`` on Sun in 1955 o Didn`t have much chart success in the 50`s o By the 60`s he had signed to indie label Monument and released 19 hit records o Had a country infused sound but also turned to more general pop numbers and ballads  Heavy use of Falsetto, much like Elvis  Influenced extensively by doo-wop - Ricky Nelson – The son of two musicians, he had extensive experience with radio early on o Signed early to Imperial where he scored 26 Top 40 hits o Clean cut image and good looks similar to Elvis  Didn`t write on music First Wave Surf - Most rock in the 1960`s was focused in the area east of Mississippi (NY, Philadelphia) - The Beach Boys – From suburban LA o Took cues from black doo-wop, mainstream white vocal groups, driving rock and roll, and the wall of sound techniques o Proponents for the surf genre: idealized view of teen summers on the beach o ``Surfin`` as their first hit in 1961 o Signed with Capital in 1962 and scored 26 hits o Competing with the British invasion and the Beatles, especially in 1964 o marked by Wilson`s falsetto  greatly influenced by Chuck Berry, even copying his songs o Wilson later demanded production rights on all recordings - Other important figures in the scene include Jan and Dean, Dick Dale, and Duane Eddy o Dick Dale came from actual surf backgrounds and focused on quick picking guitar and mostly-instrumental tunes o Quick slides down the fret board reminiscent of a `crashing wave` Splatter Platter – Songs with a narrative focus on teen death UNIT 5 PG 154-175, 176-191 - NOTHING SENT UNIT 6, pg. 192-202, 203-221 - The  term  “Beatlemania”  had  been  coined  in  the  UK  in  1963  to  describe  the  reaction  of  British   fans  to  the  Beatles’  music - British bands did not erase all American pop acts from the charts; many groups who had hit records during 1963 continued to have success - By the summer of 1965, new musical styles in American pop were emerging as a result of the cross-fertilization of American styles with the Mersey beat – folk rock being the most obvious example - Folk rock took the east strumming-and-singing texture of folk and added electric guitars, bass, drums and occasionally keyboards to create an American music-stylistic reaction to the British invasion - Emulating  the  Beatles’  and  Stones’  guitar-dominated sound, a slew of garage bands formed across the country, most with only minimal musical skills - NY (New York) was the centre of the American pop music scene in the early 1960s, but after 1964, much of the most popular new music emerged from LA (Los Angeles) Folk Rock Dylan Plugs In - In 1960, a young folksinger arrived in NY from Minnesota and within a few months, Bob Dylan was  playing  in  Greenwich  Village  and  becoming  increasingly  active  in  the  city’s  folk  scene  – by the be
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