MUSC 2140 Study Guide - The Microphones, Johnny Hodges, Benny Moten

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
Department
Course
Professor
Unit 5 (Chapter 8)
Objectives:
Identify and describe recordings by Andy Kirk and his Twelve Clouds of Joy
Identify and describe recordings by the Count Basie Band
Identify and describe recordings by Duke Ellington
And develop criteria for appraising these performances
Musical Terms:
1. Downbeat and Meter:
Meter the organization of recurring pulses into patterns.
Most common form of meter is:
Duple meter the most common form of meter, grouping beats into patterns of
twos or fours; every measure, or bar, in duple meter has either two or four beats
In recent years, Jazz musicians have adopted:
Irregular meter a meter featuring beats of unequal size (some are divided into
twos, others into threes). A meter of five, for example, features two beatsone
divided into three notes, the other divided into two notes. Similar combinations of
7, 9, and 11 are possible
Some pieces use:
Triple meter a meter that groups beats into patterns of threes; every measure, or
bar, of triple meter has three beats
Downbeat the first beat of a measure, or bar. (Or the place where we agree to
begin our counting). The distance between downbeats is a measure.
*The professor does a great job explaining this in simpler terms.
2. Countermelody:
Countermelody in homophonic texture, an accompanying melodic part with
distinct, though subordinate, melodic interest; also known as obbligato (a sub-
category of homophonic texture)
Basically, instruments have a melodic interest of their own, though not strong
enough to compete with the main melody.
3. Soli:
Soli a passage for a section of a jazz band (saxophones, trumpets, trombones) in
block-chord texture
Block chords a homophonic texture in which the chordal accompaniment moves
in the same rhythm as the main melody
Basically, all the horns in a section can be playing the same melody, but they will
all be in different pitch of the certain chords that are being played (one in high
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pitch, one in lower pitch, on in main or middle pitch). Called ‗soli‘ since they
sound like one improvised solo.
Readings: (Chapter 8. Pgs. 195-196, and then from p. 200 until the end of the chapter)
The southwest:
Swing was already a national music, disseminated by recordings and radio across
the country
Southwest pulled that sound in a new direction (west of the Mississippi, such as
Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Headquarters in Kansas City)
Heavily populated by African Americans since the civil war
From the Margins to the Center: Boogie-Woogie:
Boogie-Woogie a blues piano style (impossible to know where this came from)
This style spread rapidly during the 20‘s
Huge in Kansas City and Chicago (main cities)
Doubled the pace of even Ragtime music (which was already double the pace of
standard music)
Used Ostinatos (insistently repeated melodies) divides each beat into 2 so that the
four beat measure feels like 8 beats
Was a social musicinexpensive and great for dancing
Good examples include:
o Honky tonk train blues Meade Lux Lewis
o Pine top‘s boogie-woogie Clarence ‗pine-top‘ Smith
Territory Bands: (dance bands scattered across America in the 20s and 30s)
Andy Kirk (1898-1992) and Mary Lou Williams (1910-1981): Andy Kirk was the
Tuba player for The Twelve Clouds of Joy and the musical genius of the group
was said to be Mary Lou Williams who played piano
o Territory band during the great depression that was always touring and
threatened by lack of money
o Had future star saxophonists Ben Webster, Lester Young, and Buddy Tate
pass through
o Singed with Decca records in 36
o Took the ballad of the streets known as ―slave song‖ and recorded it and
copyrighted it as ―Until the Real Thing Comes Along
o Mary Lou was inspired by pianist Earl Hines
o Was always backstage until one time got the opportunity to play and was
then a member of the band
o At first couldn‘t even read music! (most women had very little training at
that time)
o Known for the song “Walking and Swingin’” (written in 1936 by Mary
Lou). *Goes on to describe the song on page 201 with the musical
breakdown on pages 202 and 203
Count Basie (1904-1984)
o Most famous bandleader from Kansas City, but he grew up on the New
Jersey shore
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Document Summary

Identify and describe recordings by andy kirk and his twelve clouds of joy. Identify and describe recordings by the count basie band. And develop criteria for appraising these performances. Meter the organization of recurring pulses into patterns. Duple meter the most common form of meter, grouping beats into patterns of twos or fours; every measure, or bar, in duple meter has either two or four beats. Irregular meter a meter featuring beats of unequal size (some are divided into twos, others into threes). A meter of five, for example, features two beats one divided into three notes, the other divided into two notes. Triple meter a meter that groups beats into patterns of threes; every measure, or bar, of triple meter has three beats. Downbeat the first beat of a measure, or bar. (or the place where we agree to begin our counting). *the professor does a great job explaining this in simpler terms: countermelody:

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