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[MUSC 2150] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (47 pages long!)


Department
Music
Course Code
MUSC 2150
Professor
Shannon Carter
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
MUSC 2150
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Unit 1: Studying Popular Music
Studying Rock
Blues is an important style in popular music that displays a series of musical features. When such features occur
i ok, e use the te lues-ased to highlight the ifluee of this stle. Blues-based features might
ilude the use of the -a lues patte, stig eds o the guita, o lues ifletios of pith i a lead
instrument or voice
Source of controversy or cultural struggle, nonconformity and misbehavior are central to the rock movement
“oe sholas use the te ok ad oll to desie the fist ae of ok fo  to 
Other scholars desie usi afte  as ok
Elements to consider
o Media
best interests of media outlets to deliver what they believe people want most rather than
serious consideration of musicians and their music
o Fan mentality
Listen and study other music genres we might not like
o Chart positions
still the est istuets e hae aailale to judge listees hagig tastes
o 4 themes
Social, political and cultural issues
Issues of race, class and gender
The development of the music business
changed dramatically since the early 1950s
The development of technology
rise of radio in the 1920s and the emergence of television after World War II are central
fatos i oks eplosio ito aistea Aeia ultue i the id-1950s.
Development of cable television that facilitated the introduction of MTV in the early
1980s
o Tracking the popularity arc.
a specific style will appear within a relatively restricted geographic region and remain unknown
to most fans of popular music
rise of punk from a small regional underground scene to mainstream pop culture, and its
following retreat, follows a pattern alled the populait a
‘oket 
Classi tak ‘oket   Jakie Besto ad His Delta Cats i 
‘eoded i Mephis ad podued  “a Phillips Elis Pesles st producer)
Formal diagram provides an overview of the formal design of a song, or how the different parts of the song fit
together to create what is often a familiar pattern
o Breaks it into sections and the timings give you an idea where in the song a specific section begins and
ends
Simple verse form consists of a series of verses, all of which use the same underlying music. A simple verse form
contains no chorus or bridge sections
Verse is a section that most often features new lyrics with each repetition within a song. Often used to tell a
story or describe a situation. In an AABA form, the verse is the focal point of the song, and may also include a
refrain. In a verse-chorus type form, the verse sets up the chorus
Instrumental verse is a verse section that repeats the music of the verse, without the singing and with an
instrument soloing. Guitar, saxophone, and keyboard solos are common, though any instrument can solo
Beat is a egula hthi pulse i usi. Thee ogaized ito easues o as
Bar [or measure  fo shot– synonyms] is where Musiias ofte out out a sog, saig , , , . This
is a bar of music, and the numbers represent beats. These bars usually have the same number of beats in them
throughout a song (though not always)
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A Note on Rhythm and Meter
Rhythm refers to the organized patterning of the temporal dimension in music. Can refer to a rhythmic figure in
the music, which is usually a short segment with a clearly defined profile
Meter establishes how we will notate music within a certain meter classification. A way of organizing rhythm
and beats in music
o Simple is when each beat is evenly divided into 2 parts
o Compound is when each beat is divided evenly into 3 parts (6/8, 9/8 or most commonly 12/8)
Simple (2 parts)
Compound (3 parts)
Duple (2 parts)
Duple simple (2/4)
Duple compound (6/8)
Triple (3 beats)
Triple simple (3/4)
Triple compound (9/8)
Quadruple (4 beats)
Quadruple simple (4/4)
Quadruple compound (12/8)
Meter classification classifies how we feel the organization of the rhythm for a particular song or passage.
Thee classified as either simple or compound, and then as either duple, triple, or quadruple. A meter
classification can be notated using a specific meter. There are six meters that are most common
Shuffle is often a way of playing 4/4 that transforms it into something closer to 12/8. A shuffle uses the 12/8
scheme, but the & is often silent, so we get 1 (&) ah 2 (&) ah 3 (&) ah 4 (&) ah. The elements do not evenly
divide the beat
The 12-Bar Blues and the Doo-Wop Progression
12-bar blues
o Once the twelve-measure pattern is in place, an entire song will often repeat the structure several
times, with new lyrics and instrumental solos added to make these repetitions fresh
Phrase is a short passage of music; often in rock music, phrases are four measures in length (sometimes eight
measures). A phrase is akin to a sentence in spoken language and divides the music into units that make it easier
to comprehend. Vocal phrases often correspond to obvious points of division and articulation in the lyrics being
sung
o words of the final four measures often complete the thought begun in the repeated initial phrase
patte as uestio—question—ase lis dot liteally have to ask a question)
the 1st line in each verse is repeated in the 2nd phrase, with the 3rd phrase completing the
thought with a new line
Introduction is a section of a song that precedes the start of the first verse or chorus (when the chorus appears
before the verse). Introductions are frequently instrumental, but may also contain singing. Some musicians refer
to this setio as the ito
Roman numerals are used by music theorists to identify chords within a key. The chord based on the first note
of the sale i a ajo ke is laeled I, hile the hod uilt o the fifth ote of the sae sale is laeled V.
Some theorists use upper-case Roman numerals for major chords and lower-case numerals for minor chords.
Thus, the chord built on the first note of a io ke is i. Oe oe leas the a hods ae foed i ajo
and minor keys, the Roman numerals help to generalize how the chords work in any major key or in any minor
key
Chords is a combination of three or more notes played simultaneously. A limited number of such combinations
make up the majority of chords heard in rock music. Musicians classify these combinations, using such terms as
ajo, io, doiat seeth, io seeth, aog othes
Key refers to the fact that all of the notes in the song bear a subordinate relationship to some central note. The
actual note that is central is identified using a note name (A, Bb, F#) and the way in which the other notes relate
to that etal ote is idetified usig tes suh as ajo o io. Whe usiias efe to the ke of D
major, for instance, they mean that the note D is the central note and that the other notes relate to it in a
specific way that we hear as major
Scale takes the notes that are available for use in any given key and puts them in order, starting and ending on
the most important note
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