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Quiz

MUSC2150 Quiz: listening quiz 1


Department
Music
Course Code
MUSC 2150
Professor
Shannon Carter
Study Guide
Quiz

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1. Rocket ‘88’
oSimple verse form. A simple verse form consists of a series of verses, all of which use the sa
me underlying music. Asimple verse form contains no chorus or bridge sections, though the v
erses may contain a refrain.
oInstrumental verse. A verse section that repeats the music of the verse, without the singing a
nd with an instrumentsoloing, is an instrumental verse. Guitar, saxophone, and keyboard solos
are common, though any instrument can soloin an instrumental verse.
oBar /measure. Musicians often count out a song, saying “1, 2, 3, 4.” This is a bar of music, an
d the numbers represent beats.These bars usually have the same number of beats in them thro
ughout a song (though not always).
oRhythm. In the broadest sense, the word “rhythm” refers to the organized patterning of the te
mporal dimension inmusic. More specifically, we can refer to a rhythmic figure in the music,
which is usually a short segment with a clearlydefined profile of some kind. Meter and meter
classification are aspects of the broader aspect of rhythmic organization.
oMeter classification. A meter classification classifies how we feel the organization of the rhy
thm for a particular songor passage. In this book, meters are classified as either simple or com
pound, and then as either duple, triple, orquadruple. A meter classification can be notated usin
g a specific meter, and though there are several meters than canbe used with each classificatio
n, there are six meters that are most common.
oMeter. A meter establishes how we will notate music within a certain meter classification. Ea
ch of the meterclassifications discussed in the Introduction can be represented with several m
eters, but some meters are far morecommon than others, especially in rock music. Of the simp
le meters, 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 are most common, and amongthe compound meters, 6/8, 9/8, and
12/8 are most common.
oDuple (meter). When there are two beats in a bar (or measure) of music, the meter is classifie
d as duple. Duple meteris commonly notated as 2/4 if it is a simple feel, or 6/8 if it is a compo
und feel.
oQuadruple (meter). When there are four beats in a bar (or measure) of music, the meter is cl
assified as quadruple.Quadruple meter is commonly notated as 4/4 if it is a simple feel, or 12/
8 if it is a compound feel.
oShuffle. A shuffle rhythm is often a way of playing 4/4 that transforms it into something clos
er to 12/8. The fourbeats in a measure of 4/4 are each divided into two equal parts, making for
a scheme that goes 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &. In12/8, the same measure would divide the beats into th
ree equal parts, resulting in 1 & ah 2 & ah 3 & ah 4 & ah. Ashuffle uses the second of these sc
hemes, but the & is often silent, so we get 1 (&) ah 2 (&) ah 3 (&) ah 4 (&) ah. Thissounds so
mewhat like the first scheme (4/4), since it has two elements per beat, but unlike the first sche
me, theelements do not evenly divide the beat.
oSimple Verse Form: Rocket ‘88’, Heartbreak Hotel
2. This song is in a quadruple meter; each bar is divided into four beats. You can count the beats ONE-two-Three-four in time
with the bass on the recording.
3. The song is played with a shuffle rhythm; the beats are divided into two, but the two parts are unequal: ONE-(and)-uh-two-(and)-
uh-Three-(and)-uh-four-(and)-uh. This type of rhythm is also called “swing rhythm.” Again, you can count this along with the
saxophones from 00:50. If the rhythm were “straight,” the sub-division of the beat would be into two equal parts and would be
counted ONE-and-two-and-Three-and-four-and.
oTwelvebar blues. The twelvebar blues is a structure that forms the musical basis for many ve
rses, choruses, andeven bridges in rock music. It can be divided into three 4bar phrases. The l
yrics to the first phrase are frequentlyrepeated in the second phrase, with new lyrics appearing
in the third phrase, creating a kind of question/questionrepeated/answer model as the words u
nfold. The twelvebar blues also employs a specific arrangement of chords. In the history of ro
ck, the twelvebar blues is strongly associatedwith 1950s rock and rhythm & blues. Even when
this structure arises in later rock, the reference to the 1950s is oftenclear. E.g. Rocket ‘88’

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Doowop progression. The doowop progression is a structure that can form the basis for verse, chorus, and bri
dgesections in rock music. It is a repeating pattern of four chords: I-iv-IV-V. In the key of C major, these chord
s would beC major–A minor–F major–G major. As per its name, the pattern was common in youthoriented voc
al harmonymusic during the 1950s, but was also employed widely after this period in a variety of contexts.
E.g. Sh-Boom
oSimple Verse Form: Rocket ‘88’, Heartbreak Hotel
oAABA Form: Great Balls of Fire
oSimple Verse-Chorus Form: Can the Circle Be Unbroken
oContrasting Verse-Chorus Form: That'll Be the Day
2. Read what Covach has to say about recording techniques commonly found in rock then listen to Josie by Steely Dan. Work at
hearing the different effects that Covach identifies. Listen, too, for the form, the various instruments, and their roles.
1. Look up and memorize the following terms in the Glossary at the back of your textbook:
oAABA Form
oBridge
2. Listen to Over the Rainbow while following along with the listening guide. Repeat until you can hear what is meant by each
term.
3. In one repetition, count along with the meter indicated in the guide.
4. In one repetition, listen for the instrumentation indicated in the guide.
5. Listen to Garland’s vocal timbre: she has a trained voice that sounds full and round.
1. Look up and memorize the following term in the Glossary at the back of your textbook:
oOverdubbing
oCoda
2. Listen to I’m Sittin’ On Top of the World while following along with the listening guide. Repeat several times until you can
hear the overdubbed guitar lines.
3. In one repetition, listen for the AABA plus Coda form in the song. Try hearing it at least once without the guide.
4. In one repetition, count along with the meters indicated in the guide.
5. Listen to Ford’s vocal timbre: like Judy Garland, it has full, round, trained sound.
6. Pay attention to the “chipmunk” effect in the instrumental bridge at 0:59. Like the overdubbing, this is an early example of sound
engineering.
1. Listen to required listening Can the Circle Be Unbroken for an example of early country or hillbilly music.
2. Listen to the vocal timbre of the singers: it is a bit thin and nasal. This timbre is common to early country or hillbilly music. Compare it
to the more round, smooth, trained sound of Tin Pan Alley vocalists. Which sounds more sincere to you?
3. Listen to the acoustic instruments in the song: the guitar and the autoharp. It is difficult to distinguish between these instruments at
first, so practice listening to just the autoharp here. The timbre is a bit more “twangy” and thin than the guitar. Now try to hear it in our
song: the autoharp is strumming the chords. These two instruments were popular choices in early country music.
1. Listen to required listening Hey Good Lookin’ by Hank Williams while following along with the listening guide. Repeat
until you are able to pick out all of the instruments indicated by the guide.
2. Listen for the AABA form once with the guide and once without.
3. Count along with the meter indicated in the guide.
4. Williams sings in a working-class dialect: “lookin,’” “got a,” “gonna,” “how’s about.” The dialect is used deliberately to both connect
with the perceived audience of the music and to support the singer’s image of hard-working sincerity.
5. The timbre of Williams’ voice is thin and nasal, like the earlier examples.
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1. Listen to Evil by Howlin’ Wolf, go the to listening guide on the publisher’s website and follow along. This is an example of Chicago
electric blues.
2. Repeat until you are able to pick out each instrument from the combo given in the guide. Review which of these instruments are part
of the rhythm section and pay attention to how they operate in this song.
3. Again, the call and response is between Howlin’ Wolf and the instruments. In the first instrumental verses, the roles are reversed: the
singer gives short responses to the instruments. In the second instrumental verse, the harmonica and the piano call and respond
with each other.
4. The chord progression under each verse is the 12-bar blues. Listen to the first line of each verse: the chords sound the same. Do the
same with the second lines and third lines of each verse.
5. The AAB pattern is varied to AB in this song. “B” is the refrain.
6. Listen to the improvisatory nature of the vocals and the instrumental solos. Howlin’ Wolf alters the refrain each time to keep it
interesting for the listener and to create emotional affect. The instrumental solos have uneven phrases and make sudden changes in
speed.
7. Listen to the timbre of the vocals and compare to the country artists from earlier in the unit. Compare again to the Tin Pan Alley
artists. Who sounds more emotional?
1. Listen to required listeningSh’Boom by the Chords. This is an example of doo-wop, a subtype of rhythm and blues.
2. Listen to the call-and-response pattern between the lead and backup singers. This is a common feature of both blues and African-
American gospel.
3. Note the nonsense syllables sung by the backup singers: this is a common feature of doo-wop and one that is often imitated in later
music genres.
Learning Activity 2.13
1. Listen to required listeningShake, Rattle, and Roll by Big Joe Turner while following along with the listening guide.
Follow the form in the guide.
2. Pick out each of the instruments in the combo and review which of them belong to the rhythm section. Pay attention to how the
rhythm section functions in this song.
3. Listen to Turner’s vocal timbre: it is much smoother than either Robert Johnson or Howlin’ Wolf.
4. The call and response feature is still present: the saxophones play short responses to the vocals.
5. The AAB pattern is still present in the verses, as is the 12-bar blues chord progression.
6. Consider the sexual nature of the lyrics in Turner’s version of the song and compare them the lyrics in Shake, Rattle, and Roll by Bill
Haley and His Comets.
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