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Nutrition 6 (MIDTERM 1 REVIEW)

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University of Guelph
NUTR 1010
Andrea Buchholz

 Midterm  40 multiple choice and T/F  Choice of 2 of 3 short answer questions   Constipation  You are likely constipated if  You strain or have hard stools with more than ¼ of defecations AND  If you have fewer than 3 defecations a week  May be accompanied by abdominal pain  Causes of constipation  Traveling (schedule disruption)  Changes in diet (e.g insufficient fibre, fluid)  Side effects of some medications (antidepressants)  Lack of physical activity (lower peristalsis)  Managing constipation o Treat underlying condition o Increase fibre intake, soluble and insoluble (but do so gradually) o Fluid intake (minimum 2000 ml/d) o 5-10 servings of fruits and vegs o more than 5 servings of whole grains  eg breakfast cereal with 2-3 g of fibre  regular physical activity  probiotics may help too   Carbohydrates  What are carbs  One of 3 energy containing macronutrients  Contain Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen  CHO  Simple and complex CHO  Simple CHO are monosccharides and disaccharides  Complex CHO contain 100s to 1000s of glucose molecules  CHECK FIGURE 4.2 IN CHAPTER 4  FIGURE 4.4 IN TEXT   Soluble Fibre  Absorbs water (gummy or gel like)  Eg oatmeal  Slows movement through intestine, provides bulk to stool  Primarily solulable  Oats, barley, legumes (dried beans and peas), some fruit (apples, bananas, oranges)   Insoluble Fibre  Attracts, but doesn’t absorb water  Tough, fibrous structure of fruit, veggies and grains  Eg cellulose  Speeds up movement through intestine, helps with stool elimination  Primarily insoluble  Wheat, bran, cereals, brown rice  Majority of CHO digestion occurs in small Intestine  Fibre, starch and disaccharides enter small intestine  Pancreatic amylase (enzyme) digests remaining starts to maltose (sugar)  Maltase (enzyme) digests maltose to glucose (sugar)  Sucrase (enzyme) digests sucrose into glucose, fructose (sugar)  Lactase (enzyme) digests lactose to glucose, galactose (sugar)  Monosaccharides then travel to the liver  **FIGURE 4.6**  Blood levels of glucose are maintained in the brain and other body cel
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