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Nutrition Midterm#2 Review.docx

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NUTR 1010
Andrea Buchholz

Nutrition Midterm 2 ReviewThe Skinny on FatWhat is dietary fatPart of a larger group of substances called lipids Insoluble in water Fat comes in different forms Triglycerides Phospholipids Sterols95 of dietary fat and body fat is made up of TriglyceridesA triglyceride is a molecule made up of three fatty acids attached to a threecarbon glycerol backboneFatty acids are classified by their length saturation and shapeLength refers to number of C carbon atoms in fatty acids Short medium long Why are fatty acids Acids They contain an acid group COOH at the end of their chain harmless Most triglycerides contain fatty acids of varying lengths short medium and longFatty acids are classified by their length saturation and shapeSaturated fatty acid SFA No double bonds all C atoms saturated with hydrogen H Monounsaturated fatty acid MUFA One double bond Polyunsaturated fatty acid PUFA 2 or more double bonds Most triglycerides are mixed they contain a mix of SFA MUFA and PUFAFatty acids are classified by their length saturation and shapeHydrogen atoms on the same side of carbon atomsWhat foods have saturated fatsAnimal foods tropical oilsWhat foods have monounsaturated fats Olive oil canola oilWhat foods have polyunsaturated fats Canola safflower and corn oils fish nuts and seedsThere are different kinds of polyunsaturated fatsLinoleic acid an omega6 fat is an essential fatty acid found in vegetable oils Metabolized in the body into compounds in which regulate functions like blood pressure blood clotting The word essential in nutrition an essential nutrient must be obtained through diet Alphalinoleic acid an omega3 fat is also an essential fatty acid found in leafy greens flaxseed and flaxseed oil soybased products canola oil fish and fish oils Metabolized in body to compounds which decrease inflammation blood clotting and triglycerides and therefore decreases risk of heart diseaseMost fatty acids have cis bonds come fatty acids have trans bonds Also called trans fats Industrial trans fats look and act like saturated fats in our bodies can increase risk of heart disease Where do industrial trans fats come from The food manufacturing industry Fat is prone to oxidation males a product rancid Therefore manufacturers package food airtight or add preservatives and antioxidants Add hydrogen atoms to polyunsaturated fats to increase saturation and make product resistant to oxidation result in trans fatAdding hydrogen atoms to a polyunsaturated fat is called hydrogenation Does more than prevent oxidation Hydrogenation also makes the fat more stable when heated to high temperatures turns liquid fat into a solid fatThe other 5 of fat is made up of Phospholipids compounds found in cell membranes help keep our cell membranes intact Sterols a group of hydrophobic compounds the most common is cholesterolCholesterol is a precursor to vitamin D testosterone and estrogenHow does our body digest absorb and metabolize fat1 Mouth Salivary glands in the mouth produce an enzyme lingual lipase that digests small amounts of triglycerides 2 Stomach Fat arrives intact at the stomach where it is mixed and broken into droplets Gastric lipase digests some triglycerides 3 GallBladder Releases bile into the small intestine 4 Small intestine Bile from the gallbladder breaks fat into smaller droplets Lipid digesting enzymes from the pancreas break triglycerides into monoglycerides and fatty acids Micelles transport free fatty acids to the mucosal cells of the small intestine for absorption
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