Study Guides (248,211)
Canada (121,402)
Nutrition (318)
NUTR 1010 (148)
Final

Final Review .docx

60 Pages
83 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Nutrition
Course
NUTR 1010
Professor
Laura E Forbes
Semester
Fall

Description
11/27/2012 10:15:00 PM Antioxidants If you don’t get enough Vitamin A  Night blindness (reversible)  Blindness (irreversible- occurs due to drying & hardening of cornea = Xerophthalmia – Dry eyes)  Immune compromises  Growth failure  Vitamin A deficiency kills hundreds of thousands of children every year in 3 rdworld countries  Can happen in Canada too What if you eat too much?  Vitamin A is highly toxic  Loss of appetite  Blurred vision  Plain, nausea  Liver, eyes and other organ damage  Could cause death  Birth defects in pregnant women  Its possible to overdose from food sources alone  UL is 2000 RAE (just over twice the RDA) Cancer  A disease where cells multiply out of control  Often forms a tumour  Many tumours are benign (not harmful, because they cant metastasize)  Malignant (cancerous) tumours metastasize or infect other parts of the body How does cancer happen?  There are 3 steps  Initiation  Promotion  Progression Those at higher risk of cancer  Older adults (most people who get cancer are over 50 years of age)  Those with family history (genetic predisposition) Preventing Cancer  The Canadian Cancer Society estimates that 50% of cancers could be prevented through  Stopping smoking  Decreasing sun exposure  Decreasing environmental chemical exposure  Being physically active  Maintaining a healthy weight  A healthy diet o = as many as 35%  antioxidants may contribute to reducing the risk of cancer  enhancing the immune system  inhibiting growth of cancer cells  preventing oxidation damage to cells Diet and Cancer  Maintaining a healthy weight  Eating a healthy diet  Lots of vegetables and fruit, fibre, antioxidants and phytochemicals  Low in red meats and processed meats Body weight and Cancer  Being overweight increases risk of:  Breast, colon, prostate, endometrial, kidney, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, rectum, esophageal cancers  How does this happen?  Hormonal changes, increased inflammation happen in obesity Cancer and Vegetable and fruit intake  Vegetables and fruit are high in:  Fibre  Antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, Vitamin C)  Phytochemicals; naturally occurring chemicals in plants o May reduce the risk of cancer Phytochemicals  Lycopene- a carotenoid  “The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption”  – from article  Polyphenolic compounds  Found in: berries, pomegranates, red wine, tea, coffee Polyphenols  Often many different compounds in one food  Isolating the effect of each polyphenol is difficult  In foods together and work together  Supplementation with 1 polyphenol often doesn’t work  Isolating compounds does not work doctors do not know yet why supplementation is not working  Eat the whole food Red meat  Includes beef, pork, lamb and goat  Why so bad?  Too much Heme iron can cause oxidation, free radicals o Found in your blood and all muscles  High temperature cooking can cause cancerous chemical formation Cooking your meats to avoid carcinogens  Don’t fry, BBQ or grill your meats, especially to a “well done” temperature  Do roast, poach, stew, slow cook meats Processed meat  Ham, hot dog, bacon, deli meats, pepperoni  Why so bad?  Nitrities and nitrates (preservatives- they make ham pink)  Combine with stomach acid to create nitrosamines – carcinogenic  The good news- vitamin C can prevent the formation  Must eat bitamin C at the same time as meats or else it does not work  Ex. Eat bell/hot peppers with hotdogs, drink OJ, strawberries and kiwi 11/27/2012 10:15:00 PM Bone Heath Introduction to Bones  Bones are dynamic, living organs  Have many important roles in the body  Important to maintain healthy bones Functions of Bones: Structure and Support Metabolic Processes  - Structural support for organs and  - Storage reservoir for minerals body segments  - Protect vital organs  - Production of blood cells in bone marrow  - Muscle support for movement  Bone Structure Consists of:  Provides strength to support the body  Allows for flexibility  Contains about 65% minerals providing the hardness of the bone  Contains 35% organic structures fro strength, durability, flexibility  Collagen: fibrous protein in bone tissue  65% minerals = hardness  hydroxyapatite o calcium and phosphorus crystals  35% organic substances = strength and flexibility  collagen (a fibrous protein) Nutrients Involved in Bone Health: Major Roles Minor Roles  -calcium  -magnesium  -vitamin D  -vitamin K  -phosphorous  -vitamin A   -protein   -fluoride Bone Development: Growth Modelling Remodelling  -Determines bone size  -Determines bone shape  -Maintains bone integrity- reshaping of the bone  -Beings in womb  -Longitudinal growth  -“recycling”/ Bone Resorption and formation- repairs  -Continues until early  -Continues until early  -Adulthood adulthood adulthood Process of Bone Remodelling  Bone Resorption- surface of bones is broken down  osteoclasts- cells that erode the surface of bones by secret enzymes & acids to erode bone surface, forming a pit  Minerals released into the bloodstream  Bone Formation- of new bone resorption pit  Formation of bone by osteoblasts – cells that produce the collagen containing component of bone o Build collagen matrix Peak Bone Mass  Peak bone density is reached before the age of 30  Density beings to decrease after age 40 because resorption exceeds new bone formation  Highest amount attained during the years of normal bone growth  End of adolescence vs late 20s  Site specific  Influenced by:  Genetics  Nutrition  Physical activity  Disease  Drugs Measuring Bone Status  Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)  Uses very low level x-ray energy  Provides a full body scan  Is a non-invasive procedure  Measures bone mineral density (BMD) o Bone mineral content (g)/bone area (cm2) = BMD(g/cm2)  Monitor changes in BMD  Determine risk of osteoporosis  BMD value compared o T-score (compares your BMD to average peak bone density of a 30 year old healthy adult of similar race and gender) o BMD values in Adults  4.0-2.5 = presence of osteoporosis  2.5=-1.0 = low bone mass  -1.0-=1.0= normal bone density (t-score) Poor Bone Health  Osteoporosis:  Most prevalent bone disease in N.America  Bone is porous and thinner  Low bone mass & deterioration of bone tissue o ↑ bone fragility o ↑ fracture risk Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Modifiable Non-Modifiable  -nutrient deficiencies  -age  -sedentary lifestyle  -gender  -smoking  -ethnicity  -low body weight  -fracture history  -alcohol abuse  -family history  -repeated falls   -hormone deficiencies   -medications  Age as a Risk Factor  Risk increases with older age  BMD ↓ gradually with age  Bone remodeling imbalance o Resorption occurs more rapidly than formation  Minerals released from inner bone matrix  Bones become wider and less dense Gender as a Risk Factor  Women higher risk than men  Lower peak bone mass  Longer life expectancy  Hormonal changes o Low estrogen levels cause increase bone resorption and decrease bone formation o Without estrogen bone remodeling balance is uneven, bone density decreases  Boys have a longer period of cellular growth= more bone mass Calcium is:  A mineral  A MAJOR mineral – we need >100mg per day  The most abundant mineral in the body  It makes up 2% of our body weight Calcium is Critical for Strong Bones  99& calcium stored in bones  critical part of hydroxyapatite crystals  provide strength to the bones  protein makes bones more flexible  crystals make bones hard and strong Calcium has another role as an electrolyte  1% calcium is in the blood as an electrolyte  regulate heart beat  blood clotting  normal functioning of nervous system  muscle contraction and relaxation  the body controls blood levels closely  influx of calcium causes muscle to contract If your not getting enough calcium:  your body will take what it needs from your bones (in order to increase blood calcium concentration)  blood Ca levels don’t change but bones weaken  this can result in osteoporosis How much calcium is enough? The RDA’s (from the DRI’s) for Calcium Age Men Women  13-18  1300mg/d  1300mg/d  19-50  1000mg/d  1000mg/d  51-70  1000mg/d  1200mg/d  70+  1200mg/d  1200mg/d  Women and older individuals need more calcium Sources of calcium  Milk & milk products  Milk alternatives and fortified foods (ie. Calcium fortified Orange juice, soy milk)  Fish eaten with bones (ie. Canned salmon, sardines)  Tofu  Some nuts (almonds) and seeds (sesame)  Dark green veggies (kale, bok choy, broccoli)  All Calcium isn’t absorbed equally (refer to table) – DRI’s are still taken into account Getting the most out of the calcium in your diet  Spread your calcium throughout the day  Your intestines can only absorb about 1 cup of milks worth of calcium at one time  Oxylates (spinach), phytates )whole grains) and Tannins (tea) decrease absorption  Avoid taking zinc, iron or magnesium supplements when your eating a source of calcium (because minerals compete to be absorbed) For vegans and other dairy free folks  Beat dairy-free sources  Milk alternatives (soy, rice, almond or coconut milk, yogurt or cheese)  High calcium leafy greens (kale, bok choy)  Tofu  Almonds and sesame seeds  Choose servings of several of these foods daily What if I Cant get enough?  Things to consider in selecting a supplement  Amount- you cant absorb more then about 500mg at a time  Form of the supplement- how absorbable is it? o Most supplements are about 30% absorbed o Calcium citrate malate is slightly better absorbed (35%) o Calcium carbonate is the cheapest- TUMS Maximizing supplement absorption  Don’t take calcium with multivitamin  Interferes with iron, magnesium and phosphorus absorption  Take a calcium supplement with food  Take small amounts throughout the day to maximize absorption Eating to much calcium?  Eating more doesn’t change blood levels of calcium because it is closely regulated  When you have enough, your body stops absorbing it  The extra comes out in the feces  Too much calcium could interfere with the absorption of other minerals  Particularly iron and zinc Phosphorus  Another major mineral (>100mg/day needed)  85% phosphorus is found in bones  part of hydroxyapatite crystals  15% in soft tissues and fluids in the body  cell membrances (in phospholipids)  energy storage and release (ATP, creatinine)  activates enzymes in metabolic reactions  important for DNA  fluid balance (its an electrolyte)  acid-base balance Phosphorus in the diet  in almost every food we eat  only a deficiency risk in very low energy and very low protein diets  well absorbed in the intestine  added to processed foods & carbonated beverages  deficiency rare and usually not caused by low dietary intake (medical conditions) Phosphorus- too much  concern about over-consuming processed foods and carbonated beverages  too much can interfere with calcium absorption & excretion, may also affect bone mineralization  like calcium, phosphorus intake doesn’t affect blood levels- tight regulation Magnesium  major mineral  50-60% of our body’s magnesium is in the bone  influences hydroxyapatite formation  regulates calcium balance  is a cofactor for over 300 enzymes  none of these enzymes would work without it  none of the chemical reactions would happen  these enzymes control  energy use  building DNA and proteins  blood clotting  muscle contractions Where is magnesium  found in most foods, so acute deficiencies are rare  best sources: whole grains, green leafy vegetables, nuts ,seeds and beans Too much or too little  Too much possible from supplements  Diarrhea, nausea  Acute deficiencies are rare but low intakes are related in increase risk of:  Osteoporosis  Heart disease  High blood pressure  T2 diabettes Vitamins and Bone Health Vitamin D  Also called Cholecalciferol or Calcitirol (active form)  A fat soluble vitamin- stored in fat tissue (mostly liver)  Also considered a hormone  A chemical messenger in the body (makes message to try to absorb more calcium from the foods you are eating)  Conditionally essential- we can make it ourselves if were exposed to enough sunlight, if not we have to get it from foods What does Vitamin D do for the Bone Heath?  Vitamin D- important for calcium balance  Helps absorb calcium  Helps retain calcium (decreased excretion)- to keep bones strong and keep them in your bones  Helps regulate blood levels of calcium  Important in cell differentiation  Role in cancer prevention  Immune system  Vitamin D may play a role in helping the body fight viruses and infections  Preventing Multiple Sclerosis Getting Enough Vitamin D  Synthesize it from a form of cholesterol in out skin (need uv light from the sun)  Need sun, kidneys, liver and cholesterol to make vitamin D People who absorb less  People with darker skin  People who live far from the equator  97% of Canadians have inadequate blood vitamin D levels during winter and or spring  elderly- older skin has fewer vitamin D making compounds  people wearing sunscreen (keeps out rays that will make vitamin D)  people who cover all their skin  people who stay indoors during the middle of the day (between 10am-3pm) Foods the contain vitamin D naturally  oily fish- wild salmon, herring, trout, macherel (eating a serving will give you VD for whole day)  farmed salmon has about ¼ the vitamin D as wild (wild salmon has 1000IU in a 3oz serving)  most of our dietary vitamin D comes from fortified milk & margarine How much Vitamin D da we need?  RDAs for vitamin D  10 months to 70 yrs needs 600IU or 15ug  70yrs+ needs 800IU or 20ug Should I be taking a supplement?  Its recommended that men and women over 50 years of age take on  For you other folks, perhaps in the winter if you does eat a lot of milk/ fatty fish  And in the summer if, your inside or wear sunscreen  A supplement containing the RDA (600-800IUs) What if I don’t get enough?  Rickets = soft bones  Rickets was common in children living in cities during the industrial revolution (smoke in the air blocked the sunlight)  Pollution blocked the sun= no vitamin D  Rich children were sent to the country to be cured Osteomalacia- Vitamin D deficiency for adults  In adults, soft bones due to vitamin D deficiency is called osteomalacia  Poor mineralization  Bowed legs  Aching joints  Risk of fractures Vitamin D toxicity  Not possible from sun exposure  Once you have enough, your body stops making it  Toxicity is possible from supplements, but is rare  May cause hypercalcemia (high blood calcium levels)  Calcium deposits on organs  Excess vitamin D is stored in fat tissue Vitamin D and Cancer  One study showed that women taking a vitamin D supplement had a 60% lower risk of cancer  There is emerging evidence that too much Vitamin D may be related to increase risk of some cancers  This is why the DRI’s for vitamin D have remained moderate Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis  An autoimmune disease affecting the neurons (nerve cells) of the brain and spinal cord  Myelin sheath is destroyed  Result in:  Muscle weakness, difficulty moving, paralysis, speech problems, fatigue, pain, cognitive impairment, depression  Vitamin D has a role in the immune system  Regulates T-cells (a type of white blood cell)  In MS is very rare near the equator  Taking a daily multivitamin with 10ug (400IU) vitamin D decreases risk of developing MS by 40% Vitamin K  AKA Quinones  A fat soluble vitamin  Is needed to make osteocalcim- a protein needed to build strong bones  Secreted by osteoblasts in step 1 of bone building  Step 2 is to add minerals  Is needed for blood clotting  We get vitamin K from green leafy vegetables Vitamin K and Bacteria  Bacteria in your stomach make vitamin K  Much of our dietary needs are met through bacterial vitamin K Too much or too little?  Too much?  No known toxicity effects  Too little?  Rare, in adults  Newborns without bacteria in their stomach are at risk o They get vitamin K shots at birth  May have a role in osteoporosis prevention 11/27/2012 10:15:00 PM Coffee and Tea What is coffee  A beverage made from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant (Coffea Arabica) 3 General ways of making coffee:  1)Drip method (filter, coffee ground, drop coffee)  2)French press (coffee grounds pour boiling water, push level)  3)Espresso maker (water in bottom, middle is coffee grounds, when water is boilded steams coffee) Caffeine in Coffee and Tea  a stimulant  the most commonly consumed drug world wide  90% of N.Americans consume it every day  sources of caffeine (chocolate, carbonated drinks, energy drinks) Drip brewed coffee has the most amount of caffeine French press = middle Espresso = least Black tea = most Green tea = least Physical effects of caffeine  vary from person to person  nervousness, irritability, restlessness, insomnia, headaches and heart palpitations  caffeine dependency is possible  withdrawal symptoms  tolerance with repeated use Caffeine and Hypertension  caffeine increases blood pressure for `3 hours  if you are prone to caffeine blood pressure lowers (drinking caffeine regular)  not in regular caffeine users  drink caffeine regularly or not at all Caffeine and Bone Heath  caffeine inhibits the absorption of calcium  those who consume caffeine and have low calcium intakes are at higher risk of having poor bone health Caffeine during pregnancy  caffeine crosses the placenta, so if you drink caffeine, so does your baby  some evidence that caffeine increases risk of low birth weight and preterm birth  recommendation during pregnancy for non-pregnant women Caffeine, mental health, sleep  caffeine may increase or decrease anxiety, depression, other mental health conditions  increased incidence of suicide  caffeine effects sleep  lack of sleep can lead to obesity, chronic disease, mental health disorders  high intakes in children could effect behaviour problems Caffeine recommendation  women of childbearing age <300mg per day  all other adults <400mg per day  children  4-6 yrs <45mg  7-8 yrs <62.5 mg  10-12 yrs <85 mg  13 yrs <400mg Decaffeinated Coffee  water extraction (swiss process):  coffee beans are soaked in water which contains coffee flavor compounds  caffeine moves by diffusion from an area of high concentration (in the beans) to an area of low concentration (in water)  the flavor stays in the bean, because flavor in water  the water put through a charcoal filter to remove the caffeine Oily substances in Coffee  kahweol and cafestol- oily compounds  increase blood LDL cholesterol levels  associated with increased risk of heart disease  mostly found in boiled or French press coffee  filters keep the kahweol and cafestol out The good stuff in coffee  a study in finland found that 66% of antioxidants in the diet came from coffee  antioxidants include polyphenolic compounds- chlorogenic acids, flavonoids, melanoidins  coffee also contains potassium, niacin (a B vitamin), and magnesium Overall Effect of Coffee on Health  moderate intake of coffee is related to better health  decreases risk of: (due to phytochemicals)  T2 diabetes  Some cancers  Parkinsons disease  Liver disease  Some concerns for: (due to caffeine)  Sleep, mental health, pregnant women, bone health, children Complicating Factors  People who drink coffee aren’t like people who don’t  Coffee drinkers may be more likely to:  Smoke  Drink alcohol  Have less healthy lifestyles (diet, exercise) -------- What is Tea  Soaked leaves of the plant or Camellia Sinensis  Black tea- leaves are picked, oxidized (also called fermented) and dried  Green tea- the leaves are not oxidized  White tea- the leaves are not oxidized and they are dried in the sun  Oolong tea- withered in the sun and oxidized  Rooibos tea- made from a different plant.  Red bush plant- does not contain caffeine  Herbal tea- made from infusions of different plants Phytochemicals/Antioxidants in tea  Catechin  A polyphenol  Antioxidant  Highest content in green and white teas  Black tea still contain a lot Other Beneficial compound in tea  L-Theanine- an amino acid derivative  Has a calming effect  Helps strengthen the immune system Tannins in tea  Can bind minerals in the digestive tract to inhibit absorption  Especially IRON  Too much tea could cause iron deficiency anemia Health effects of tea  Improved cardiovascular health (>3cups per day)  Decrease atherosclerosis by protecting the health of blood vessels  Green tea may help with body weight control  Small increase in energy expenditure (5%) and fat burning  Increase bone mass  Prevents dental cavities- fluoride in tea  Improve immune system and mental acuity ------- What is Alcohol  A toxin- our body has to detoxify it  Alcohol can be burning for energy, but it is not a macronutrient  7kcals per gram of alcohol Fermentation- creating alcohol  yeast or bacteria break down sugar into alcohol How do you make wine?  Grapes are crushed  The pulp is fermented with yeast (1-2weeks)  Secondary fermentation/aging – wine is stored in casks (often oak) to slowly ferment and mature (3-6 months)  White wine  Red or white grapes, but grade skin are removed  Fortified wine  Higher sugar content as juice is concentrated  More sugar + fermentation = more alcohol  Sparkling wine  Fermentation in the bottle means CO2 captured How do you make beer?  Malted barley, water, yeast and hops  Malting- barley is soaked in water until the grain germinated, then the grain is dried  During germination starch = maltose  Hops add flavor  Yeast ferments the maltose to alcohol (2-4 weeks) How do we digest/metabolize alcohol  Alcohol is absorbed in the small intestine and in the stomach  No digestion is required before absorption  Your body metabolized alcohol in several ways Metabolizing Alcohol  1) alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver  Alcohol dehydrogenase acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Alcohol -------- acetaldehyde -------- acetate  80% of alcohol consumed is metabolized this way  2) MEOS (microsomal ethanol oxidizing system)  it takes over when alcohol dehydrogenase is saturated  especially important for long term, heavy drinkers o alcohol tolerance of alcoholics  10% of alcohol consumed is metabolized this way  3) 10% of the alcohol is lost in the breath and urine How fast do we metabolize it?  Varies from person to person  On average, 1 standard drink per hour is metabolized  Alcohol waiting to be metabolized is in the blood and raised blood alcohol levels How much alcohol is moderate?  Less than 10 drinks per week with no more than 2 drinks in one day for women  Less than 15 drinks per week with no more than 3 drinks in one day for men  On special occasions, no more than 3 drinks for women, no more than 4 drinks for men What is binge drinking?  More than 5 drinks in a short time for a man  More than 4 drinks in a short time for a women  Evidence of fatty liver can be seen after only 3 days of binge drinking How much can be dangerous?  Alcohol poisoning  Stupor, unconsciousness, vomiting while semiconscious, seizures, difficulty breathing, coma  Women: little as 4-6 drinks  Men: little as 6-8 drinks How much can be dangerous?  Drinking and driving  2 drinks can put you over the legal limit (0.08 blood alcohol content)  health Canada recommends not drinking at all if you plan on driving Alcoholism  5-6 drinks per day for 10 years causes  cirrhosis of the liver o occurs in 20% of people with alcoholism  vitamin and mineral deficiencies o not just caused by poor dietary intake o B vitamins and antioxidants get deleted o Wernickle-korsakoff syndrome: an alcohol induced dementia caused by thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency Alcohol during pregnancy  Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder  A whole range of disorders caused by alcohol intake during pregnancy o Growth deficiency o Learning difficulties o Behavioral problems o Physical deformities  No amount of alcohol is safe during pregnancy The good news about alcohol  Cardiovascular disease  Moderate drinkers have a 20-40% lower risk  Moderate alcohol intake increases HDL levels  Decreases blood pressure, prevents clots  Lower risk of T2 diabetes  Alcohol may improve insulin sensitivity Especially Red Wine  Protects bones  Moderate red wine consumption and bone maintenance in older women  Mental function  Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s with red wine consumption  Red wine may be most beneficial  Contains many polyphenols including resveratrol – an antioxidant o Role in cancer prevention o Reducing oxidized LDL 11/27/2012 10:15:00 PM Nutrition and Energy Metabolism The B Vitamins  “Let’s sit down and name these vitamins: Vitamin A, Vitamin B, WHOA SLOW DOWN, we’ve got a lot to cover here! B2, B3, B6, B12...” - Demetri Martin What B Vitamins have in Common  They are water soluble vitamins • Transport dissolved in the blood • Must be eaten regularly, but toxicity is rare You pee out the extra (like vitamin C!)  ALL involved with energy metabolism • Burning CHO (carbohydrate), fat and/or protein  They act as co-enzymes (work together to burn energy for us)  Enzyme a catalyst for metabolic reactions B Vitamins as Coenzymes  Inactive because it doesn’t have another enzyme bound to it b/c of irregular shape  Introducing the B Vitamins  B1 (Thiamin)  B2 (Riboflavin)  B3 (Niacin)  B6 (Pyridoxine)  Folate or Folic Acid  B12 (Cobalamin)  Biotin  Pantothenic Acid Other functions?  Several B vitamins have a role in blood health Where do you find them?  Added to white flours, pasta and breakfast cereals  Found abundantly in meats, meat alternatives, milk, grains and fruit and vegetables  Severe deficiencies are rare  Possible low intakes of:  Folate among non-vegetable eaters  Vitamin B12 among vegans Fortification of Flour in Canada  Flour, White Flour, Enriched Flour or Enriched White Flour is ENRICHED with:  Thiamine  Riboflavin  Niacin  Folic acid –added to the list in 1998 – 30-70% decrease in Neural Tube defects  iron B Complex Vitamins  Does taking more give you more energy?!?! • B complex enzymes, helps convert food into energy* • Having more than you need won’t make you metabolize energy faster or more • Expensive urine (just peeing out the b vitamins) ------ Thiamin and Niacin (B1 and B3) Thiamin  What does it do?  Needed to burn CHO for energy  Needed for amino acid metabolism  Where do we find it?  Whole grains naturally contain it. Thiamin is added to enriched grain products  Pork also has thiamin  What happens when you don’t get enough?  Beriberi (vitamin thiamin deficiency)  Became very common is Asia when polished (white) rice was introduced – no thiamin (cant metabolize CHO.. etc)  Muscle wasting and weakness  Nerve damage o Dementia, confusion, memory loss  Eventually your whole body will shut down  Dry beriberi muscle wasting and nerve problems (shown above)  Wet beriberi same symptoms along with edema Beriberi in Canada  Beriberi still happens- in alcoholism  Wernickle-Korsakoff Syndrome  Caused by a combination of alcohol intake and poor quality diet  Dementia, confusion Niacin  What does it do?  Needed for the metabolism of CHO and fats  Also needed to make DNA and for cell differentiation  Where is it found?  Meat, fish, poultry, enriched grains and breakfast cereals Tryptophan and Niacin  Tryptophan is..  An amino acid  Our bodies can make niacin out of tryptophan  Beans are low in tryptophan  Most grains have lots of tryptophan but corn is lower  Vegetarian populations that depend on corn as the main grain may have niacin deficiency  Usually we can get enough tryptophan from proteins to make niacin o many south American counties use corn as a staple food, and niacin deficiency can be a problem Niacin Deficiency  Pellagra – rare in 1 stworld countries, except in alcoholism  The 4 D’s occur in order • Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, & death Iodine and Metabolism  Thyroid hormones control our metabolism  Thyroxine controls our basal metabolic rate  obesity can be caused by low thyroxine levels (however this is a rare cause)  Iodine is a critical component of thyroxine  Low levels of iodine intake cause low levels of thyroxine and won’t be burning as much energy  Thyroid hormones are a bit like a thermostat. They control how much energy you burn. Where do we find Iodine?  Sea foods  Sea weed, fish, shrimp, etc.  milk products  Iodine from milk comes from sanitation products used by the dairy industry.  Plant food grown in iodine-rich soil  North American soil is iodine poor  Idolized salt  1/2 tsp of salt contains all the iodine you need Iodine Deficiency • Hypothyroidism (low levels of thyroid hormones - thyroxine) • Weakness, fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain, intolerance of cold (can’t burn enough energy to keep us warm) • Goiter: swelling of the thyroid gland Iodine Deficiency during Pregnancy  Cretinism  Stunted growth  Low IQ  Deafness  Muteness Iodine Deficiency Around the World  Still the most common cause of brain damage  The good news: • Iodized salt has GREATLY decreased the prevalence of iodine deficiency since the 1980’s • # of countries affected cut in half  BUT 54 countries world wide still have problems with iodine deficiency (remote communities that can’t access the salt) ----- Vitamins and minerals  Are required for proper metabolism  Don’t directly provide energy  Are necessary for obtaining energy from the macronutrients  Vitamins often function as coenzymes  Enzyme: a protein that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction. o Enzymes are required for all metabolic reactions  Coenzyme: a molecule that combines with an enzyme to facilitate enzyme function o Some metabolic reactions require coenzymes What does Blood do?  Transports oxygen  Transports nutrients  Removes waste products  Important in the healing process  Important part of the immune system Healthy blood vs. unhealthy  Healthy blood  Transports everything efficiently  Unhealthy blood  Doesn’t transport oxygen and/or nutrients well  Usually because of problems with red blood cells Red Blood Cells  Contain hemoglobin  Hemoglobin oxygen, delivers it to cells  If there are too few red blood cells or it the red blood cells are damaged in some way, oxygen transport doesn’t happen  Too few red blood cells = anemia Microcytic anemia  Cells are small and pale because they don’t contain as much hemoglobin. There will also be fewer cells than normal Macrocytic anemia  In macrocytic anemia, the cells are released before they are mature and they don’t work well. They don’t have the donut shape. They are big and round Iron is  A trace mineral (the opposite of a major mineral)  Need less than 100mg per day  Very important component of hemoglobin Iron and Hemoglobin  2/3 of our body’s iron s in hemoglobin  iron binds oxygen molecules to hemoglobin  each hemoglobin molecule has 4 heme groups. Each heme group has 1 iron atom and that iron atom grabs the oxygen  your body cant make hemoglobin without iron  you cant transport oxygen without iron what else does iron do?  A component of myoglobin  Transports oxygen in muscles o Contains heme groups o Attaches to O2 groups to feed the muscles  Found in enzymes that are needed to metabolize energy from CHO, fat and protein  Cytochromes Iron and cytochromes  Cyanide is a poison  Found naturally in apple and peach seeds  Binds to the iron in cytochromes and stops energy metabolism  Spies may carry capsules- you break them, put them under your tongue to die before you talk
More Less

Related notes for NUTR 1010

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit