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NUTR 1010
Laura E Forbes

11/27/2012 10:15:00 PM Antioxidants If you don’t get enough Vitamin A  Night blindness (reversible)  Blindness (irreversible- occurs due to drying & hardening of cornea = Xerophthalmia – Dry eyes)  Immune compromises  Growth failure  Vitamin A deficiency kills hundreds of thousands of children every year in 3 rdworld countries  Can happen in Canada too What if you eat too much?  Vitamin A is highly toxic  Loss of appetite  Blurred vision  Plain, nausea  Liver, eyes and other organ damage  Could cause death  Birth defects in pregnant women  Its possible to overdose from food sources alone  UL is 2000 RAE (just over twice the RDA) Cancer  A disease where cells multiply out of control  Often forms a tumour  Many tumours are benign (not harmful, because they cant metastasize)  Malignant (cancerous) tumours metastasize or infect other parts of the body How does cancer happen?  There are 3 steps  Initiation  Promotion  Progression Those at higher risk of cancer  Older adults (most people who get cancer are over 50 years of age)  Those with family history (genetic predisposition) Preventing Cancer  The Canadian Cancer Society estimates that 50% of cancers could be prevented through  Stopping smoking  Decreasing sun exposure  Decreasing environmental chemical exposure  Being physically active  Maintaining a healthy weight  A healthy diet o = as many as 35%  antioxidants may contribute to reducing the risk of cancer  enhancing the immune system  inhibiting growth of cancer cells  preventing oxidation damage to cells Diet and Cancer  Maintaining a healthy weight  Eating a healthy diet  Lots of vegetables and fruit, fibre, antioxidants and phytochemicals  Low in red meats and processed meats Body weight and Cancer  Being overweight increases risk of:  Breast, colon, prostate, endometrial, kidney, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, rectum, esophageal cancers  How does this happen?  Hormonal changes, increased inflammation happen in obesity Cancer and Vegetable and fruit intake  Vegetables and fruit are high in:  Fibre  Antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, Vitamin C)  Phytochemicals; naturally occurring chemicals in plants o May reduce the risk of cancer Phytochemicals  Lycopene- a carotenoid  “The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption”  – from article  Polyphenolic compounds  Found in: berries, pomegranates, red wine, tea, coffee Polyphenols  Often many different compounds in one food  Isolating the effect of each polyphenol is difficult  In foods together and work together  Supplementation with 1 polyphenol often doesn’t work  Isolating compounds does not work doctors do not know yet why supplementation is not working  Eat the whole food Red meat  Includes beef, pork, lamb and goat  Why so bad?  Too much Heme iron can cause oxidation, free radicals o Found in your blood and all muscles  High temperature cooking can cause cancerous chemical formation Cooking your meats to avoid carcinogens  Don’t fry, BBQ or grill your meats, especially to a “well done” temperature  Do roast, poach, stew, slow cook meats Processed meat  Ham, hot dog, bacon, deli meats, pepperoni  Why so bad?  Nitrities and nitrates (preservatives- they make ham pink)  Combine with stomach acid to create nitrosamines – carcinogenic  The good news- vitamin C can prevent the formation  Must eat bitamin C at the same time as meats or else it does not work  Ex. Eat bell/hot peppers with hotdogs, drink OJ, strawberries and kiwi 11/27/2012 10:15:00 PM Bone Heath Introduction to Bones  Bones are dynamic, living organs  Have many important roles in the body  Important to maintain healthy bones Functions of Bones: Structure and Support Metabolic Processes  - Structural support for organs and  - Storage reservoir for minerals body segments  - Protect vital organs  - Production of blood cells in bone marrow  - Muscle support for movement  Bone Structure Consists of:  Provides strength to support the body  Allows for flexibility  Contains about 65% minerals providing the hardness of the bone  Contains 35% organic structures fro strength, durability, flexibility  Collagen: fibrous protein in bone tissue  65% minerals = hardness  hydroxyapatite o calcium and phosphorus crystals  35% organic substances = strength and flexibility  collagen (a fibrous protein) Nutrients Involved in Bone Health: Major Roles Minor Roles  -calcium  -magnesium  -vitamin D  -vitamin K  -phosphorous  -vitamin A   -protein   -fluoride Bone Development: Growth Modelling Remodelling  -Determines bone size  -Determines bone shape  -Maintains bone integrity- reshaping of the bone  -Beings in womb  -Longitudinal growth  -“recycling”/ Bone Resorption and formation- repairs  -Continues until early  -Continues until early  -Adulthood adulthood adulthood Process of Bone Remodelling  Bone Resorption- surface of bones is broken down  osteoclasts- cells that erode the surface of bones by secret enzymes & acids to erode bone surface, forming a pit  Minerals released into the bloodstream  Bone Formation- of new bone resorption pit  Formation of bone by osteoblasts – cells that produce the collagen containing component of bone o Build collagen matrix Peak Bone Mass  Peak bone density is reached before the age of 30  Density beings to decrease after age 40 because resorption exceeds new bone formation  Highest amount attained during the years of normal bone growth  End of adolescence vs late 20s  Site specific  Influenced by:  Genetics  Nutrition  Physical activity  Disease  Drugs Measuring Bone Status  Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)  Uses very low level x-ray energy  Provides a full body scan  Is a non-invasive procedure  Measures bone mineral density (BMD) o Bone mineral content (g)/bone area (cm2) = BMD(g/cm2)  Monitor changes in BMD  Determine risk of osteoporosis  BMD value compared o T-score (compares your BMD to average peak bone density of a 30 year old healthy adult of similar race and gender) o BMD values in Adults  4.0-2.5 = presence of osteoporosis  2.5=-1.0 = low bone mass  -1.0-=1.0= normal bone density (t-score) Poor Bone Health  Osteoporosis:  Most prevalent bone disease in N.America  Bone is porous and thinner  Low bone mass & deterioration of bone tissue o ↑ bone fragility o ↑ fracture risk Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Modifiable Non-Modifiable  -nutrient deficiencies  -age  -sedentary lifestyle  -gender  -smoking  -ethnicity  -low body weight  -fracture history  -alcohol abuse  -family history  -repeated falls   -hormone deficiencies   -medications  Age as a Risk Factor  Risk increases with older age  BMD ↓ gradually with age  Bone remodeling imbalance o Resorption occurs more rapidly than formation  Minerals released from inner bone matrix  Bones become wider and less dense Gender as a Risk Factor  Women higher risk than men  Lower peak bone mass  Longer life expectancy  Hormonal changes o Low estrogen levels cause increase bone resorption and decrease bone formation o Without estrogen bone remodeling balance is uneven, bone density decreases  Boys have a longer period of cellular growth= more bone mass Calcium is:  A mineral  A MAJOR mineral – we need >100mg per day  The most abundant mineral in the body  It makes up 2% of our body weight Calcium is Critical for Strong Bones  99& calcium stored in bones  critical part of hydroxyapatite crystals  provide strength to the bones  protein makes bones more flexible  crystals make bones hard and strong Calcium has another role as an electrolyte  1% calcium is in the blood as an electrolyte  regulate heart beat  blood clotting  normal functioning of nervous system  muscle contraction and relaxation  the body controls blood levels closely  influx of calcium causes muscle to contract If your not getting enough calcium:  your body will take what it needs from your bones (in order to increase blood calcium concentration)  blood Ca levels don’t change but bones weaken  this can result in osteoporosis How much calcium is enough? The RDA’s (from the DRI’s) for Calcium Age Men Women  13-18  1300mg/d  1300mg/d  19-50  1000mg/d  1000mg/d  51-70  1000mg/d  1200mg/d  70+  1200mg/d  1200mg/d  Women and older individuals need more calcium Sources of calcium  Milk & milk products  Milk alternatives and fortified foods (ie. Calcium fortified Orange juice, soy milk)  Fish eaten with bones (ie. Canned salmon, sardines)  Tofu  Some nuts (almonds) and seeds (sesame)  Dark green veggies (kale, bok choy, broccoli)  All Calcium isn’t absorbed equally (refer to table) – DRI’s are still taken into account Getting the most out of the calcium in your diet  Spread your calcium throughout the day  Your intestines can only absorb about 1 cup of milks worth of calcium at one time  Oxylates (spinach), phytates )whole grains) and Tannins (tea) decrease absorption  Avoid taking zinc, iron or magnesium supplements when your eating a source of calcium (because minerals compete to be absorbed) For vegans and other dairy free folks  Beat dairy-free sources  Milk alternatives (soy, rice, almond or coconut milk, yogurt or cheese)  High calcium leafy greens (kale, bok choy)  Tofu  Almonds and sesame seeds  Choose servings of several of these foods daily What if I Cant get enough?  Things to consider in selecting a supplement  Amount- you cant absorb more then about 500mg at a time  Form of the supplement- how absorbable is it? o Most supplements are about 30% absorbed o Calcium citrate malate is slightly better absorbed (35%) o Calcium carbonate is the cheapest- TUMS Maximizing supplement absorption  Don’t take calcium with multivitamin  Interferes with iron, magnesium and phosphorus absorption  Take a calcium supplement with food  Take small amounts throughout the day to maximize absorption Eating to much calcium?  Eating more doesn’t change blood levels of calcium because it is closely regulated  When you have enough, your body stops absorbing it  The extra comes out in the feces  Too much calcium could interfere with the absorption of other minerals  Particularly iron and zinc Phosphorus  Another major mineral (>100mg/day needed)  85% phosphorus is found in bones  part of hydroxyapatite crystals  15% in soft tissues and fluids in the body  cell membrances (in phospholipids)  energy storage and release (ATP, creatinine)  activates enzymes in metabolic reactions  important for DNA  fluid balance (its an electrolyte)  acid-base balance Phosphorus in the diet  in almost every food we eat  only a deficiency risk in very low energy and very low protein diets  well absorbed in the intestine  added to processed foods & carbonated beverages  deficiency rare and usually not caused by low dietary intake (medical conditions) Phosphorus- too much  concern about over-consuming processed foods and carbonated beverages  too much can interfere with calcium absorption & excretion, may also affect bone mineralization  like calcium, phosphorus intake doesn’t affect blood levels- tight regulation Magnesium  major mineral  50-60% of our body’s magnesium is in the bone  influences hydroxyapatite formation  regulates calcium balance  is a cofactor for over 300 enzymes  none of these enzymes would work without it  none of the chemical reactions would happen  these enzymes control  energy use  building DNA and proteins  blood clotting  muscle contractions Where is magnesium  found in most foods, so acute deficiencies are rare  best sources: whole grains, green leafy vegetables, nuts ,seeds and beans Too much or too little  Too much possible from supplements  Diarrhea, nausea  Acute deficiencies are rare but low intakes are related in increase risk of:  Osteoporosis  Heart disease  High blood pressure  T2 diabettes Vitamins and Bone Health Vitamin D  Also called Cholecalciferol or Calcitirol (active form)  A fat soluble vitamin- stored in fat tissue (mostly liver)  Also considered a hormone  A chemical messenger in the body (makes message to try to absorb more calcium from the foods you are eating)  Conditionally essential- we can make it ourselves if were exposed to enough sunlight, if not we have to get it from foods What does Vitamin D do for the Bone Heath?  Vitamin D- important for calcium balance  Helps absorb calcium  Helps retain calcium (decreased excretion)- to keep bones strong and keep them in your bones  Helps regulate blood levels of calcium  Important in cell differentiation  Role in cancer prevention  Immune system  Vitamin D may play a role in helping the body fight viruses and infections  Preventing Multiple Sclerosis Getting Enough Vitamin D  Synthesize it from a form of cholesterol in out skin (need uv light from the sun)  Need sun, kidneys, liver and cholesterol to make vitamin D People who absorb less  People with darker skin  People who live far from the equator  97% of Canadians have inadequate blood vitamin D levels during winter and or spring  elderly- older skin has fewer vitamin D making compounds  people wearing sunscreen (keeps out rays that will make vitamin D)  people who cover all their skin  people who stay indoors during the middle of the day (between 10am-3pm) Foods the contain vitamin D naturally  oily fish- wild salmon, herring, trout, macherel (eating a serving will give you VD for whole day)  farmed salmon has about ¼ the vitamin D as wild (wild salmon has 1000IU in a 3oz serving)  most of our dietary vitamin D comes from fortified milk & margarine How much Vitamin D da we need?  RDAs for vitamin D  10 months to 70 yrs needs 600IU or 15ug  70yrs+ needs 800IU or 20ug Should I be taking a supplement?  Its recommended that men and women over 50 years of age take on  For you other folks, perhaps in the winter if you does eat a lot of milk/ fatty fish  And in the summer if, your inside or wear sunscreen  A supplement containing the RDA (600-800IUs) What if I don’t get enough?  Rickets = soft bones  Rickets was common in children living in cities during the industrial revolution (smoke in the air blocked the sunlight)  Pollution blocked the sun= no vitamin D  Rich children were sent to the country to be cured Osteomalacia- Vitamin D deficiency for adults  In adults, soft bones due to vitamin D deficiency is called osteomalacia  Poor mineralization  Bowed legs  Aching joints  Risk of fractures Vitamin D toxicity  Not possible from sun exposure  Once you have enough, your body stops making it  Toxicity is possible from supplements, but is rare  May cause hypercalcemia (high blood calcium levels)  Calcium deposits on organs  Excess vitamin D is stored in fat tissue Vitamin D and Cancer  One study showed that women taking a vitamin D supplement had a 60% lower risk of cancer  There is emerging evidence that too much Vitamin D may be related to increase risk of some cancers  This is why the DRI’s for vitamin D have remained moderate Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis  An autoimmune disease affecting the neurons (nerve cells) of the brain and spinal cord  Myelin sheath is destroyed  Result in:  Muscle weakness, difficulty moving, paralysis, speech problems, fatigue, pain, cognitive impairment, depression  Vitamin D has a role in the immune system  Regulates T-cells (a type of white blood cell)  In MS is very rare near the equator  Taking a daily multivitamin with 10ug (400IU) vitamin D decreases risk of developing MS by 40% Vitamin K  AKA Quinones  A fat soluble vitamin  Is needed to make osteocalcim- a protein needed to build strong bones  Secreted by osteoblasts in step 1 of bone building  Step 2 is to add minerals  Is needed for blood clotting  We get vitamin K from green leafy vegetables Vitamin K and Bacteria  Bacteria in your stomach make vitamin K  Much of our dietary needs are met through bacterial vitamin K Too much or too little?  Too much?  No known toxicity effects  Too little?  Rare, in adults  Newborns without bacteria in their stomach are at risk o They get vitamin K shots at birth  May have a role in osteoporosis prevention 11/27/2012 10:15:00 PM Coffee and Tea What is coffee  A beverage made from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant (Coffea Arabica) 3 General ways of making coffee:  1)Drip method (filter, coffee ground, drop coffee)  2)French press (coffee grounds pour boiling water, push level)  3)Espresso maker (water in bottom, middle is coffee grounds, when water is boilded steams coffee) Caffeine in Coffee and Tea  a stimulant  the most commonly consumed drug world wide  90% of N.Americans consume it every day  sources of caffeine (chocolate, carbonated drinks, energy drinks) Drip brewed coffee has the most amount of caffeine French press = middle Espresso = least Black tea = most Green tea = least Physical effects of caffeine  vary from person to person  nervousness, irritability, restlessness, insomnia, headaches and heart palpitations  caffeine dependency is possible  withdrawal symptoms  tolerance with repeated use Caffeine and Hypertension  caffeine increases blood pressure for `3 hours  if you are prone to caffeine blood pressure lowers (drinking caffeine regular)  not in regular caffeine users  drink caffeine regularly or not at all Caffeine and Bone Heath  caffeine inhibits the absorption of calcium  those who consume caffeine and have low calcium intakes are at higher risk of having poor bone health Caffeine during pregnancy  caffeine crosses the placenta, so if you drink caffeine, so does your baby  some evidence that caffeine increases risk of low birth weight and preterm birth  recommendation during pregnancy for non-pregnant women Caffeine, mental health, sleep  caffeine may increase or decrease anxiety, depression, other mental health conditions  increased incidence of suicide  caffeine effects sleep  lack of sleep can lead to obesity, chronic disease, mental health disorders  high intakes in children could effect behaviour problems Caffeine recommendation  women of childbearing age <300mg per day  all other adults <400mg per day  children  4-6 yrs <45mg  7-8 yrs <62.5 mg  10-12 yrs <85 mg  13 yrs <400mg Decaffeinated Coffee  water extraction (swiss process):  coffee beans are soaked in water which contains coffee flavor compounds  caffeine moves by diffusion from an area of high concentration (in the beans) to an area of low concentration (in water)  the flavor stays in the bean, because flavor in water  the water put through a charcoal filter to remove the caffeine Oily substances in Coffee  kahweol and cafestol- oily compounds  increase blood LDL cholesterol levels  associated with increased risk of heart disease  mostly found in boiled or French press coffee  filters keep the kahweol and cafestol out The good stuff in coffee  a study in finland found that 66% of antioxidants in the diet came from coffee  antioxidants include polyphenolic compounds- chlorogenic acids, flavonoids, melanoidins  coffee also contains potassium, niacin (a B vitamin), and magnesium Overall Effect of Coffee on Health  moderate intake of coffee is related to better health  decreases risk of: (due to phytochemicals)  T2 diabetes  Some cancers  Parkinsons disease  Liver disease  Some concerns for: (due to caffeine)  Sleep, mental health, pregnant women, bone health, children Complicating Factors  People who drink coffee aren’t like people who don’t  Coffee drinkers may be more likely to:  Smoke  Drink alcohol  Have less healthy lifestyles (diet, exercise) -------- What is Tea  Soaked leaves of the plant or Camellia Sinensis  Black tea- leaves are picked, oxidized (also called fermented) and dried  Green tea- the leaves are not oxidized  White tea- the leaves are not oxidized and they are dried in the sun  Oolong tea- withered in the sun and oxidized  Rooibos tea- made from a different plant.  Red bush plant- does not contain caffeine  Herbal tea- made from infusions of different plants Phytochemicals/Antioxidants in tea  Catechin  A polyphenol  Antioxidant  Highest content in green and white teas  Black tea still contain a lot Other Beneficial compound in tea  L-Theanine- an amino acid derivative  Has a calming effect  Helps strengthen the immune system Tannins in tea  Can bind minerals in the digestive tract to inhibit absorption  Especially IRON  Too much tea could cause iron deficiency anemia Health effects of tea  Improved cardiovascular health (>3cups per day)  Decrease atherosclerosis by protecting the health of blood vessels  Green tea may help with body weight control  Small increase in energy expenditure (5%) and fat burning  Increase bone mass  Prevents dental cavities- fluoride in tea  Improve immune system and mental acuity ------- What is Alcohol  A toxin- our body has to detoxify it  Alcohol can be burning for energy, but it is not a macronutrient  7kcals per gram of alcohol Fermentation- creating alcohol  yeast or bacteria break down sugar into alcohol How do you make wine?  Grapes are crushed  The pulp is fermented with yeast (1-2weeks)  Secondary fermentation/aging – wine is stored in casks (often oak) to slowly ferment and mature (3-6 months)  White wine  Red or white grapes, but grade skin are removed  Fortified wine  Higher sugar content as juice is concentrated  More sugar + fermentation = more alcohol  Sparkling wine  Fermentation in the bottle means CO2 captured How do you make beer?  Malted barley, water, yeast and hops  Malting- barley is soaked in water until the grain germinated, then the grain is dried  During germination starch = maltose  Hops add flavor  Yeast ferments the maltose to alcohol (2-4 weeks) How do we digest/metabolize alcohol  Alcohol is absorbed in the small intestine and in the stomach  No digestion is required before absorption  Your body metabolized alcohol in several ways Metabolizing Alcohol  1) alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver  Alcohol dehydrogenase acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Alcohol -------- acetaldehyde -------- acetate  80% of alcohol consumed is metabolized this way  2) MEOS (microsomal ethanol oxidizing system)  it takes over when alcohol dehydrogenase is saturated  especially important for long term, heavy drinkers o alcohol tolerance of alcoholics  10% of alcohol consumed is metabolized this way  3) 10% of the alcohol is lost in the breath and urine How fast do we metabolize it?  Varies from person to person  On average, 1 standard drink per hour is metabolized  Alcohol waiting to be metabolized is in the blood and raised blood alcohol levels How much alcohol is moderate?  Less than 10 drinks per week with no more than 2 drinks in one day for women  Less than 15 drinks per week with no more than 3 drinks in one day for men  On special occasions, no more than 3 drinks for women, no more than 4 drinks for men What is binge drinking?  More than 5 drinks in a short time for a man  More than 4 drinks in a short time for a women  Evidence of fatty liver can be seen after only 3 days of binge drinking How much can be dangerous?  Alcohol poisoning  Stupor, unconsciousness, vomiting while semiconscious, seizures, difficulty breathing, coma  Women: little as 4-6 drinks  Men: little as 6-8 drinks How much can be dangerous?  Drinking and driving  2 drinks can put you over the legal limit (0.08 blood alcohol content)  health Canada recommends not drinking at all if you plan on driving Alcoholism  5-6 drinks per day for 10 years causes  cirrhosis of the liver o occurs in 20% of people with alcoholism  vitamin and mineral deficiencies o not just caused by poor dietary intake o B vitamins and antioxidants get deleted o Wernickle-korsakoff syndrome: an alcohol induced dementia caused by thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency Alcohol during pregnancy  Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder  A whole range of disorders caused by alcohol intake during pregnancy o Growth deficiency o Learning difficulties o Behavioral problems o Physical deformities  No amount of alcohol is safe during pregnancy The good news about alcohol  Cardiovascular disease  Moderate drinkers have a 20-40% lower risk  Moderate alcohol intake increases HDL levels  Decreases blood pressure, prevents clots  Lower risk of T2 diabetes  Alcohol may improve insulin sensitivity Especially Red Wine  Protects bones  Moderate red wine consumption and bone maintenance in older women  Mental function  Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s with red wine consumption  Red wine may be most beneficial  Contains many polyphenols including resveratrol – an antioxidant o Role in cancer prevention o Reducing oxidized LDL 11/27/2012 10:15:00 PM Nutrition and Energy Metabolism The B Vitamins  “Let’s sit down and name these vitamins: Vitamin A, Vitamin B, WHOA SLOW DOWN, we’ve got a lot to cover here! B2, B3, B6, B12...” - Demetri Martin What B Vitamins have in Common  They are water soluble vitamins • Transport dissolved in the blood • Must be eaten regularly, but toxicity is rare You pee out the extra (like vitamin C!)  ALL involved with energy metabolism • Burning CHO (carbohydrate), fat and/or protein  They act as co-enzymes (work together to burn energy for us)  Enzyme a catalyst for metabolic reactions B Vitamins as Coenzymes  Inactive because it doesn’t have another enzyme bound to it b/c of irregular shape  Introducing the B Vitamins  B1 (Thiamin)  B2 (Riboflavin)  B3 (Niacin)  B6 (Pyridoxine)  Folate or Folic Acid  B12 (Cobalamin)  Biotin  Pantothenic Acid Other functions?  Several B vitamins have a role in blood health Where do you find them?  Added to white flours, pasta and breakfast cereals  Found abundantly in meats, meat alternatives, milk, grains and fruit and vegetables  Severe deficiencies are rare  Possible low intakes of:  Folate among non-vegetable eaters  Vitamin B12 among vegans Fortification of Flour in Canada  Flour, White Flour, Enriched Flour or Enriched White Flour is ENRICHED with:  Thiamine  Riboflavin  Niacin  Folic acid –added to the list in 1998 – 30-70% decrease in Neural Tube defects  iron B Complex Vitamins  Does taking more give you more energy?!?! • B complex enzymes, helps convert food into energy* • Having more than you need won’t make you metabolize energy faster or more • Expensive urine (just peeing out the b vitamins) ------ Thiamin and Niacin (B1 and B3) Thiamin  What does it do?  Needed to burn CHO for energy  Needed for amino acid metabolism  Where do we find it?  Whole grains naturally contain it. Thiamin is added to enriched grain products  Pork also has thiamin  What happens when you don’t get enough?  Beriberi (vitamin thiamin deficiency)  Became very common is Asia when polished (white) rice was introduced – no thiamin (cant metabolize CHO.. etc)  Muscle wasting and weakness  Nerve damage o Dementia, confusion, memory loss  Eventually your whole body will shut down  Dry beriberi muscle wasting and nerve problems (shown above)  Wet beriberi same symptoms along with edema Beriberi in Canada  Beriberi still happens- in alcoholism  Wernickle-Korsakoff Syndrome  Caused by a combination of alcohol intake and poor quality diet  Dementia, confusion Niacin  What does it do?  Needed for the metabolism of CHO and fats  Also needed to make DNA and for cell differentiation  Where is it found?  Meat, fish, poultry, enriched grains and breakfast cereals Tryptophan and Niacin  Tryptophan is..  An amino acid  Our bodies can make niacin out of tryptophan  Beans are low in tryptophan  Most grains have lots of tryptophan but corn is lower  Vegetarian populations that depend on corn as the main grain may have niacin deficiency  Usually we can get enough tryptophan from proteins to make niacin o many south American counties use corn as a staple food, and niacin deficiency can be a problem Niacin Deficiency  Pellagra – rare in 1 stworld countries, except in alcoholism  The 4 D’s occur in order • Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, & death Iodine and Metabolism  Thyroid hormones control our metabolism  Thyroxine controls our basal metabolic rate  obesity can be caused by low thyroxine levels (however this is a rare cause)  Iodine is a critical component of thyroxine  Low levels of iodine intake cause low levels of thyroxine and won’t be burning as much energy  Thyroid hormones are a bit like a thermostat. They control how much energy you burn. Where do we find Iodine?  Sea foods  Sea weed, fish, shrimp, etc.  milk products  Iodine from milk comes from sanitation products used by the dairy industry.  Plant food grown in iodine-rich soil  North American soil is iodine poor  Idolized salt  1/2 tsp of salt contains all the iodine you need Iodine Deficiency • Hypothyroidism (low levels of thyroid hormones - thyroxine) • Weakness, fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain, intolerance of cold (can’t burn enough energy to keep us warm) • Goiter: swelling of the thyroid gland Iodine Deficiency during Pregnancy  Cretinism  Stunted growth  Low IQ  Deafness  Muteness Iodine Deficiency Around the World  Still the most common cause of brain damage  The good news: • Iodized salt has GREATLY decreased the prevalence of iodine deficiency since the 1980’s • # of countries affected cut in half  BUT 54 countries world wide still have problems with iodine deficiency (remote communities that can’t access the salt) ----- Vitamins and minerals  Are required for proper metabolism  Don’t directly provide energy  Are necessary for obtaining energy from the macronutrients  Vitamins often function as coenzymes  Enzyme: a protein that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction. o Enzymes are required for all metabolic reactions  Coenzyme: a molecule that combines with an enzyme to facilitate enzyme function o Some metabolic reactions require coenzymes What does Blood do?  Transports oxygen  Transports nutrients  Removes waste products  Important in the healing process  Important part of the immune system Healthy blood vs. unhealthy  Healthy blood  Transports everything efficiently  Unhealthy blood  Doesn’t transport oxygen and/or nutrients well  Usually because of problems with red blood cells Red Blood Cells  Contain hemoglobin  Hemoglobin oxygen, delivers it to cells  If there are too few red blood cells or it the red blood cells are damaged in some way, oxygen transport doesn’t happen  Too few red blood cells = anemia Microcytic anemia  Cells are small and pale because they don’t contain as much hemoglobin. There will also be fewer cells than normal Macrocytic anemia  In macrocytic anemia, the cells are released before they are mature and they don’t work well. They don’t have the donut shape. They are big and round Iron is  A trace mineral (the opposite of a major mineral)  Need less than 100mg per day  Very important component of hemoglobin Iron and Hemoglobin  2/3 of our body’s iron s in hemoglobin  iron binds oxygen molecules to hemoglobin  each hemoglobin molecule has 4 heme groups. Each heme group has 1 iron atom and that iron atom grabs the oxygen  your body cant make hemoglobin without iron  you cant transport oxygen without iron what else does iron do?  A component of myoglobin  Transports oxygen in muscles o Contains heme groups o Attaches to O2 groups to feed the muscles  Found in enzymes that are needed to metabolize energy from CHO, fat and protein  Cytochromes Iron and cytochromes  Cyanide is a poison  Found naturally in apple and peach seeds  Binds to the iron in cytochromes and stops energy metabolism  Spies may carry capsules- you break them, put them under your tongue to die before you talk
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