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NUTR 1010 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Saturated Fat, Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Soy Milk


Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 1010
Professor
Lise Smedmor
Study Guide
Quiz

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Chapter 4_NUTR1010
What are carbohydrates?
One of the three macronutrients, preferred energy source for the brain, important source of
energy for all cells, composed of C, H, and O, and good sources of fruits, vegetables, and grains.
Dietary Carbohydrates
Are obtained almost exclusively from plant sources; milk is the exception.
Photosynthesis
Plants convert water and carbon dioxide to sugar through this and light energy is trapped as
chemical energy in the sugar molecules.
Two Major Groups
Simple Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides
Complex Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides
Simple Carbohydrates
Contain one or two molecules, commonly referred to as sugars, monosaccharides contain only
one molecule; glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Complex Carbohydrates
Long chains of glucose molecules, commonly called polysaccharides, hundreds to thousands of
molecules long, the storage forms of glucose, digestible is starch and glycogen, and indigestible
are most fibers.
Starch
Plants store carbohydrates as this, we digest it to glucose, and a good source of grains, legumes,
and tubers.
Glycogen
Animals store carbohydrates as glycogen, stored in liver and muscle, and not found in food and
therefore not a source of dietary carbohydrate.

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Dietary Fiber
Is the non-digestible part of plants; grains, rice, seeds, legumes, and fruits.
Functional Fiber
Is carbohydrate extracted from plants and added to food; cellulose, gugar gum, pectin, and
psyllium.
Total Fiber
Dietary + functional fiber.
Soluble Fibers
Dissolve in water, are viscous and gel-forming, associated with risk reduction of cardiovascular
disease and Type 2 Diabetes, found in citrus fruits, berries, oats, and bean. Ex: Pectin, gum,
mucilage.
Insoluble Fibers
Do not dissolve in water, are non-viscous, promote regular bowel movements, good source of
whole grains, seeds, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. EX: Lignins, cellulose, and hemicellulose.
Physical Characteristics of Fiber
Water-holding capacity, viscosity, cation-exchange capacity, bile binding capacity, and
fermentable.
Effect of Fiber on the Digestive Tract
Stimulates the flow of saliva, delays gastric emptying, delays the absorption of CHO & fat, binds
heavy metals and minerals in the intestines, attracts water in the colon, and stimulate bacterial
fermentation.
Positive Effects of Fiber on Diet
Moderates nutrient absorption, reduces the absorption of cholesterol and other sterols, stimulates
growth of a healthy bacterial population in the colon, and increases softness and volume of
stools.

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Fiber
May reduce the risk of colon cancer, help prevent hemorrhoids, constipation, and other intestinal
problems, may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, may reduce the risk of heart disease, may
enhance weight loss, and may lower the risk of Type 2 Diabetes.
Adequate Intake (AI) Fiber
Is 25 grams daily or 14g/1000 kcal.
Negative Effects of Fiber on the Diet
Displaces energy and nutrient-dense foods, may cause intestinal discomfort and gas, may
interfere with absorption of minerals, and can cause G.I. obstructions if consumed without
adequate fluids.
Recommendation of Fiber Intake
Increase fiber gradually so the GI tract can adjust, drink plenty of fluids, and select fiber from a
variety of food sources: fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains.
Monosaccharides
Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose.
Disaccharides
Maltose, Sucrose, and Lactose.
Glucose
(Dextrose)-"Blood sugar," used to supply cellular energy (fuel). The most abundant
carbohydrate.
Fructose
"Fruit sugar," Sweetest of all. Abundant in fruits, honey sap (maple syrup). Used to sweeten a
variety of food products.
Galactose
Not found free in nature, component of lactose "milk sugar" and some polysaccharides.
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